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Higher Education in Korea. Feb. 2009. Hye-Jung Lee, Ph.D. Center for Teaching & Learning Seoul National University, Korea. South Korea at a Glance. Area: 99.6 K Sq. Km (107 th ) Population: 48 Million (27 th) Economy and ICT (World rank) - OECD member economy in 1996

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higher education in korea

Higher Education in Korea

Feb. 2009.

Hye-Jung Lee, Ph.D.

Center for Teaching & Learning

Seoul National University, Korea

Higher Education in Korea

south korea at a glance
South Korea at a Glance
  • Area: 99.6 K Sq. Km (107th)
  • Population: 48 Million (27th)
  • Economy and ICT (World rank)

- OECD member economy in 1996

- Economy (11th)

- Broadband diffusion (2nd)

- Home PC diffusion (3rd)

- Internet use 78%

- Average hours of internet use 13.7 hr/week

South Korea

Higher Education in Korea

i overview

I

Overview

I. Overview

Higher Education in Korea

education in general
Education in General
  • Socio-cultural context

- Homogeneity of Korean society: prevalence of the egalitarian ideal

- Confusion tradition: meritocracy, “education fever”

  • Formal Education

- Primary(6) - Middle(3) - High School(3) – Universities/Colleges(4)

- Primary & Secondary: 10,948 schools, 7.8M students, 389K teachers

- Universities/Colleges: 376 institutions, 3.5M students, 60K+ FT teachers

  • Non-formal Education & Training

- Public/private job training institutions; private tutoring institutions,

adult education centers; in-plant training institutions, etc.

Higher Education in Korea

budget
Budget
  • One year budget (2008) : 35.9 trillion Korean won

: 5.06%of the GNP

: 19.6% of total Government budget

  • the Biggest portion

: Elementary & Secondary Education 86.2%

: Higher Education 12.3%

statistics
Statistics

Public educational expenditures (% GDP)

Higher Education in Korea

types of higher education institutions
Types of Higher Education Institutions
  • University
  • Industrial University
  • University of Education
  • Junior College
  • Open University
  • Technical College
  • Cyber College & University
  • College in the Company
  • Miscellaneous Schools
  • Others
  • Enrollment rate 70.5% (2008)

Higher Education in Korea

types of higher education institutions9
Types of Higher Education Institutions
  • Junior College(2 or 3 yr)

in 152 Junior colleges (2006)

  • 817,994 students
  • 13 national/public, 139 private
  • University(4 yr)
  • 43 national/public, 178 private
  • 6year program : medicine, oriental medicine, dentistry
  • 2,434,112students in 221 colleges and universities (2006)
  • Others(4 yr)
  • 1 Broadcast & Correspondence University (300,000 enrollments each year)
  • 18 Cyber Colleges & Universities (28,000 newly entrance each year)

Higher Education in Korea

types of higher education institutions10
Types of Higher Education Institutions
  • Cyber Colleges & Universities

Higher Education in Korea

statistics11
Statistics

Schools, Students, and Teachers

Higher Education in Korea

statistics12
Statistics

Percentage of Female Students by Year

40 %

35 %

30 %

25 %

Higher Education in Korea

statistics13
Statistics

Enrollment Rate

Elite

Mass

Universal

70 %

50 %

30 %

10 %

Higher Education in Korea

statistics14
Statistics

International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 25-34

Higher Education in Korea

statistics15
Statistics

International Comparison: Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64

Higher Education in Korea

statistics16
Statistics

Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education (Total)

90 %

70 %

50 %

30 %

Higher Education in Korea

statistics17
Statistics

Advancement Rate: High School  Higher Education

General High School  Higher Education

Vocational High School  Higher Education

Higher Education in Korea

statistics18
Statistics

Number of Students in Higher Education Institutions by Field of Study (2008)

Higher Education in Korea

statistics19
Statistics

Employment Rate of the Graduates of Higher Education Institutions by Year

Higher Education in Korea

statistics20
Statistics

Changes in Admission Rate by Year

Higher Education in Korea

statistics21
Statistics

Degrees Awarded by Year

Higher Education in Korea

statistics22
Statistics

University Graduates by Field of Study (%)

* Source : Education at a Glance (OECD Indicators, 2002)

Higher Education in Korea

statistics23
Statistics

Students Studying Abroad by Year

Higher Education in Korea

statistics24
Statistics

The Rank of Korea’s Major Universities in International Evaluation (The Times)

Higher Education in Korea

i overview25

II

Issues and Challenges

I. Overview

Higher Education in Korea

trajectory of educational expansion
Trajectory of Educational Expansion
  • Step-by-step attainment of universal education:

primary → secondary → higher education

* Trow, “Forms and Phases of Higher Education”: Elite(<15%) → Mass(15-50) → Universal(>55%)

110

Elite

Mass

Universal

90

70

50

30

10

1970

1975

1980

1990

1995

2000

2003

2005

2006

-10

Lower Secondary

Primary

Upper Secondary

Tertiary

Higher Education in Korea

mobilization of private resources
Mobilization of Private Resources

< Private School Enrollment Share(2006) >

(Unit: %)

98.8

1.2

Primary Schools

Middle Schools

18.7

81.3

High Schools

51.9

48.1

Universities/

Colleges

74.6

25.4

100%

60%

20%

40%

80%

0%

Private

National/Public

Higher Education in Korea

shrinking school pop amidst ageing
Shrinking School Pop. Amidst Ageing

Low

Fertility

Ageing

Total fertility rate

No. of birth

Proportion, over 65 and 75

No. of the elderly

Higher Education in Korea

college admission dominates k 12 education
College Admission Dominates K-12 Education
  • College-Entrance-Driven System

- Extreme competition at high schools to enter top 4~5 universities

obstructing the well-rounded growth of students

→ Inordinate expansion of private education aggravating equity

imbalance between different SES groups

(private education costs: 1.9% of GDP in 2002)

→ Large volumes of study abroad leading to educational trade deficit

Higher Education in Korea

increasing education exodus

’01

’02

’03

’04

’05*

Exports

10.8

16.9

14.8

15.9

10.2

Imports

1,070.0

1,426.6

1,854.7

2,493.8

3,371.4

’97

’99

’01

’03

’04

’05

Countries

69

71

72

73

83

86

# Students

133,249

120,170

149,933

159,903

187,683

192,254

Increasing “Education Exodus”

Korean Students Studying Abroad

* Foreign student share in the U.S.(2006): Korea 93,728/ India 76,708/ China 60,850

Trade Deficit in Education

(Unit : million US$)

Higher Education in Korea

excess supply in graduate students

53%

19%

20%

8%

44%

4%

13%

39%

Associate

Bachelor

Master

Doctorate

Excess supply in graduate students
  • Unemployment rate (engineering) : 9.8%(’97)  16.6%(’03)
  • 139 of 200 4-year universities offer doctoral degree

Korea

U S

Higher Education in Korea

he is not pertinent enough

75%

Creativity

87%

Practice&field exp

68%

Field experience of

faculty

72%

Curriculum

Federation of Korean Industries, 2002.

70%

instructions

(%)

Badly Mismatched

Mismatched

Matched

Well Matched

Jr.College

University

33.3

25.4

15.8

15.0

26.7

27.9

24.1

31.6

Source: Office of Statistics, 2003

HE is not pertinent enough

Extent of dissatisfaction: CEO’s view on HE

  • Mismatch between jobs and majors

Higher Education in Korea

stakeholders are disconnected
Stakeholders are disconnected
  • Limited university-industry partnership
    • Low mobility between academia and business
    • University portion of industry's R&D investment:
    • 2.4%(’00) → 1.7% (’03) (MOST, ‘04)
  • Low commercialization of university-based IPRs
    • Patent share (90~’01) : universities 0.5%, companies 78.8%, research institutes 2.9%, individuals 17.8%
  • Un-coordinated financial support to universities
    • Duplication of funding for the same purpose by several line ministries

Higher Education in Korea

he is not prepared for an aging population
HE is not prepared for an aging population

<Source : National Statistical Office>

Higher Education in Korea

i overview35

III

Major Reform Initiatives

I. Overview

Higher Education in Korea

major strategies
Major strategies
  • Minimum regulations to maintain social solidarity
    • college admission policies with the “three-Nos” policy (no entrance exam, no use of HS ranking, no admission with donations)
  • Promotion of restructuring and competition through market discipline
    • use of various incentives and disincentives
  • Funding based on “selection and concentration”
    • targeted funding for specialization and regional parity
  • Financing learners rather than providers
    • learner-oriented/demand-side financing (student loans)
  • Improvement of HE/labor market information
    • manpower forcasting and assessment of skill requirements
  • Enhancement of networking and partnerships
    • with local governments and business community

Higher Education in Korea

major performance based funding programs
Major Performance-based Funding Programs
  • 1st-phase Brain Korea 21 (‘99~‘05, US$ 1.4billion)

- Enhanced university research capacity; induced competition

※ Number of BK21 science & tech SCI-level papers: 3,765(‘98)  7,947(‘05)

  • 2nd-phase Brain Korea 21 (‘06~‘12, US$ 2.3billion)

- Cultivate 20,000 graduate-level best brains per year

※ 74 universities, 244 project units, 325 project teams(06, US$ 290million)

  • New University for Regional Innovation (‘04~‘08, US$ 1.2billion)

- Specialize local universities; skill formation for local industry

※ 109 local universities, 130 project units

  • “Connect Korea” Project (‘06~‘10, US$ 150million)

- Strengthen partnership b/w universities and industry

- Establish consortiums b/w university TLOs(Technology Licensing Offices)

Higher Education in Korea

slide38

Brain Korea 21 Project

: efforts for improving the quality of higher education

  • Goal

Cultivate high-quality research human resources by nurturing

world class research universities and regional graduate schools of excellence

  • Outline

.

Higher Education in Korea

slide39

Brain Korea 21 Project

: efforts for improving the quality of higher education

  • Visible result : Research atmosphere

Higher Education in Korea

slide40

NURI Project

: New University for Regional Innovation

  • Goal

Give a boost to regional economy by nurturing qualified human resources

of regional university graduates through specialized education programs

  • Outline

1.2 trillion KRW is to be invested over a period of five years (2004~2008)

109 regional universities are currently participating as of 2006

131 project teams, 190,000 students

Higher Education in Korea

governance reform of public private heis

Incorporated NU System

Current NU System

Decisions making

– by staff & faculty Meetings,

Ministry of Ed., Congress

Decision-making by Board

composed of persons from in

and out of the university

Governance

Indirect election (based on

candidate’s track record on

management capacity)

Direct election by faculty

members (weight on faculty

opinion)

President

Election

GovernanceReform of Public & Private HEIs
  • Public/national universities : promote autonomy through incorporation
  • Private universities : increase transparency through

participation of external experts in the management

- appointing qualified external people on the Board of Trustees

Higher Education in Korea

facilitation of university industry partnerships

Researchers

Connect

(TLO)

Prospective R&D Results

Purchase R&D

Products

Facilitation of university-industry partnerships
  • “Connect Korea” Project
    • Establishing Consortium between TLOs (Technology Licensing Offices) in Universities
    • Connection between Demand (Industry) and Supply (University)
    • R&D and Tech. Development → Transfer Results/Products → Commercialization → Reinvest in Technology Development
    • Dissemination of best practices

Firms, Investors

Higher Education in Korea