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Networking with TCP/IP and the Internet Objectives Discuss additional details of TCP/IP addressing and subprotocols Comprehend the purpose and procedure for subnetting Understand the history and uses of BOOTP, DHCP, WINS, DNS, and host files

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objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss additional details of TCP/IP addressing and subprotocols
  • Comprehend the purpose and procedure for subnetting
  • Understand the history and uses of BOOTP, DHCP, WINS, DNS, and host files
  • Employ multiple TCP/IP utilities for network troubleshooting
  • Understand TCP/IP applications, such as Internet browsers, e-mail, and voice over IP
addressing and name resolution
Addressing and Name Resolution
  • IP Addressing
    • An IP address is 32 bits in size
    • Every IP address is grouped into four 8-bit octets
    • Octets are separated by decimal points
    • Valid octet numbers range from 0 to 255 and represent a binary address
addressing and name resolution4
Addressing and Name Resolution
  • IP Addressing (cont.)
    • Each address consists of two parts: network and host
    • The network portion of an address indicates whether the device belongs to a Class A, B, C, D, or E network
    • Some octet number are reserved for special functions
addressing and name resolution5
Addressing and Name Resolution
  • Static address
    • IP address that is manually assigned to a device
  • Dynamic address
    • IP address that is assigned to a device through DHCP
  • Dotted decimal notation
    • “Shorthand” convention used to represent IP addresses and make them more easily readable by people
network classes
Network Classes

Figure 11-1: IP addresses and their classes

network classes7
Network Classes
  • Multicasting
    • Allows one device to send data to a specific group of devices (not the entire network segment)
  • New addressing scheme is being developed
    • IP version 6 (IPV6) will incorporate this new scheme

TABLE 11-1 Three commonly used classes of TCP/IP networks

subnetting
Subnetting
  • Process of subdividing a single class of network into multiple, smaller networks

Figure 11-2: IP address before and after subnets

subnetting9
Subnetting
  • Extended network prefix
    • The combination of an address’s network and subnet information
  • Subnet mask
    • Special 32-bit number that, when combined with a device’s IP address, informs the rest of the network about the network class to which the device is on
subnetting10
Subnetting

Figure 11-3: Subnetted IP address and its subnet mask

subnetting11
Subnetting

Figure 11-4: Subnetted network connected to the Internet

subnetting12
Subnetting

Figure 11-5: Network with several subnets

subnetting13
Subnetting

Figure 11-6: Data traveling over subnets

gateways
Gateways
  • Combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data
  • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network has a defaultgateway
    • First interprets its outbound requests to other subnets and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets
  • Core Gateways
    • Gateways that make up the Internet backbone
gateways15
Gateways

Figure 11-7: Use of default gateways

network address translation nat
Network Address Translation (NAT)
  • Technique in which IP addresses are assigned a public IP address by an IP gateway

Figure 11-8: NAT through an IP gateway

sockets and ports
Sockets and Ports
  • Socket
    • Logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer
    • The socket’s address combines the host computer’s IP address with the port numberassociated with a process
    • Port numbers in the range of 0 to 1023 are called well-known ports
sockets and ports18
Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2a: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers

sockets and ports19
Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2b: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers (cont.)

sockets and ports20
Sockets and Ports

Figure 11-9: Virtual circuit for the Telnet service

host names and domain name system dns
Host Names and Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Host name
    • Symbolic name that describes a TCP/IP device
  • Domain
    • Group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP addresses in common
host files
Host Files
  • Text file that associates TCP/IP host names with IP addresses
  • Alias
    • Nickname for a node’s host name

Figure 11-10: An example of a host file

host files23
Host Files
  • On a UNIX-based computer a host file is:
    • Called hosts
    • Located in the /etc directory
  • On a Windows 9x computer, a host file:
    • Is called lmhosts
    • Must be located in the c:\windows directory in order to be recognized by the operating system
domain name system dns
Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s

Figure 11-11: DNS server hierarchy by geography

domain name system dns25
Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Resolvers
    • Hosts on the Internet that need to look up domain name information
  • Name servers
    • Servers that contain databases of names and their associated IP addresses
    • Each name server manages a group of device, collectively known as a zone
configuring dns
Configuring DNS

Figure 11-12: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box in Windows 2000

configuring dns27
Configuring DNS

Figure 11-13: DNS Configuration properties tab

dns name space
DNS Name Space
  • Name space
    • Refers to the actual database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names
    • Every name server holds a piece of the DNS name space
    • At the highest level of the hierarchy sit the root servers
dns name space29
DNS Name Space
  • Resource record
    • Element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names and their addresses
    • Address resource record
      • Type of resource record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name
bootstrap protocol bootp
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
  • Service that simplifies IP address management

Figure 11-14: The BOOTP process

bootstrap protocol bootp31
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
  • Thanks to BOOTP, a client does not have to remember its own IP address
    • Therefore, network administrators do not have to go to each workstation on a network and manually assign its IP address
  • This situation is ideal for diskless workstations
dynamic host configuration protocol dhcp
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network
  • Reasons for implementing DHCP
    • Reduce the time and planning spent on IP address management
    • Reduce the potential for errors in assigning IP addresses
    • Enable users to move their workstations and printers without having to change their TCP/IP configuration
    • Make IP addressing transparent for mobile users
dhcp leasing process
DHCP Leasing Process
  • Lease
    • Agreement between DHCP server and client on how long the client will borrow a DHCP-assigned IP address

Figure 11-15: DHCP lease agreement

terminating a dhcp lease
Terminating a DHCP Lease
  • A DHCP lease may expire based on the period established for it in the server configuration
  • A DHCP lease may be manually terminated at any time from either the client’s TCP/IP configuration or the server’s DHCP configuration
  • In some instances, a user must terminate a lease
  • Release
    • The act of terminating a DHCP lease
windows internet naming service wins
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)
  • Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses
  • WINS offers several advantages
    • Guarantees a unique NetBIOS name is used for each computer on a network
    • Support for DHCP
    • Better network performance
windows internet naming service wins36
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

Figure 11-16: Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box in Windows 2000

simple mail transfer protocol smtp and post office protocol pop
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP)
  • SMTP
    • Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another
  • POP
    • Provides centralized storage for e-mail messages
internet mail access protocol imap
Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
  • Mail storage and manipulation protocol that depends on SMTP’s transport system
    • Developed as a more sophisticated alternative to POP
    • Most current version is version 4 (IMAP4)
      • Biggest advantage of IMAP4 over POP relates to the fact users can store messages on the mail server
additional features of imap4
Additional Features of IMAP4
  • Users can retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message
  • Users can review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server
  • Users can create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server
  • Users can share a mailbox in a central location
  • IMAP4 can provide better security than POP because it supports authentication
hypertext transport protocol http
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
  • Language that Web clients and servers use to communicate
  • Forms the backbone of the Web
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
    • Language that defines formatting standards for Web documents
hypertext transport protocol http41
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)

Figure 11-18: Web client/server transmission using HTTP

packet internet groper ping
Packet Internet Groper (PING)
  • Troubleshooting utility that can verify TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network
  • An echo request is a signal sent out to another computer
  • An echo reply is the other computer’s response signal
  • Process of sending this signal back and forth is known as pinging
packet internet groper ping43
Packet Internet Groper (PING)

Figure 11-19: Example of successful and unsuccessful PING

netstat
Netstat
  • Netstat utility display TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host

Figure 11-20: Output of a simple netstat command

nslookup
Nslookup
  • Allows you to look up the DNS host name of a network node by specifying its IP address, or vice versa

Figure 11-21: Output of a simple ns lookup command

traceroute
Traceroute
  • Uses ICMP to trace path from one networked node to another
  • Also known as tracert on Windows machines

Figure 11-22: Output of a traceroute command

ipconfig
Ipconfig
  • TCP/IP administration utility for use with Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems

Figure 11-23: Output of an ipconfig command on a Windows 2000 workstation

ifconfig
Ifconfig
  • TCP/IP configuration and management utility used on UNIX systems

Figure 11-26: Detailed information available through ifconfig

internet services
Internet Services
  • World Wide Web (WWW, or Web)
    • Collection of internetworked servers that share resources and exchange information according to specific protocols and formats
    • Browser
      • Software that provides clients with a simple, graphical interface to the Web
world wide web
World Wide Web
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
      • Standard means of identifying every Web page
  • Unqualified host name
    • Host name minus its prefix and suffix
e mail and file transfer protocol ftp
E-mail andFile Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • E-mail
    • Currently, e-mail is most relied-upon Internet service you will manage
  • FTP
    • Manages files transfers between TCP/IP hosts

Figure 11-27: FTP login screen

trivial file transfer protocol tftp and gopher
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and Gopher
  • TFTP
    • TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers
  • Gopher
    • Text-based utility that allows you to navigate through a series of menus to find and read specific files
newsgroups and e commerce
Newsgroups and E-commerce
  • Newsgroups
    • Provides means of conveying messages in which information is distributed to a wide group of users at once
    • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
      • Supports process of reading newsgroup messages, posting new messages, and transferring news files between news servers
  • E-commerce
    • Means of conducting business over the Web
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network must have a unique IP address to ensure reliable data delivery
  • In addition to Class A, B, and C networks, Class D and E networks exist, although consumers and companies do not use them
  • To use IP addresses more efficiently, the concept of subnetting was applied to the Internet in the mid-1980s
  • Gateways are a combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data
  • A socket is a logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer
chapter summary55
Chapter Summary
  • The use of port numbers simplifies TCP/IP communications
  • Every host belongs to a domain
  • In the mid-1980s, the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford Research Institute devised a hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, called the Domain Name System (DNS)
  • To ease IP address management, a service called Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) was developed in the mid-1980s
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network
chapter summary56
Chapter Summary
  • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses
  • TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, commonly called subprotocols
  • TCP/IP carries the highest potential of causing problems because it requires the most planning and post-installation configuration
  • TCP/IP comes with a complete set of troubleshooting tools that can help you to track down most TCP/IP-related problems
  • There are numerous Internet services, including the World Wide Web, e-mail, File Transfer Protocol, gopher, newsgroups, e-commerce, and VoIP