MAJOR Smallpox Criteria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MAJOR Smallpox Criteria

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  1. MAJOR Smallpox Criteria • FEBRILE PRODROME: occurring 1-4 days before rash onset: fever > 101°F and at least one of the following: prostration, headache, backache, chills, vomiting, or severe abdominal pain

  2. MAJOR Smallpox Criteria(Continued) • CLASSIC SMALLPOX LESIONS: Deep-seated, firm, hard, round well-circumscribed vesicles or pustules; as they evolve lesions may become umbilicated or confluent

  3. MAJOR Smallpox Criteria(Continued) • LESIONS IN THE SAME STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT: on any one part of the body (e.g., the face or arm) all the lesions are in the same stage of development (i.e. all are vesicles, or all are pustules)

  4. MINOR Smallpox Criteria • Centrifugal distribution: greatest concentration of lesions on face and distal extremities • First lesions on the oral mucosa/palate, face, or forearms

  5. MINOR Smallpox Criteria(Continued) • Patient appears toxic or moribund • Slow evolution: lesions evolve from macules’ papules’ pustules over days (each stage lasts 1-2 days) • Lesions on the palms and soles

  6. Differentiating Chickenpox from SmallpoxChickenpox (varicella) is the condition most likely to be confused with smallpox. In Chickenpox: • No or mild prodrome • Lesions are superficial vesicles: “dewdrop on a rose petal” • Lesions appear in crops; on any one part of the body there are lesions in different stages (papules, vesicles, crusts)

  7. Differentiating Chickenpox from Smallpox (Continued): • Centripetal distribution: greatest concentration of lesions on the trunk, fewest lesions on distal extremities. May involve the face and/or scalp. Occasionally entire body equally affected. • First lesions appear on the face or trunk • Patients rarely toxic or moribund

  8. Differentiating Chickenpox from Smallpox (Continued): • Rapid evolution: lesions evolve from macules ’papules ’vesicles ’crusts quickly (<24 hours) • Palms and soles rarely involved • Patient lacks reliable history of varicella or varicella vaccination • 50-80% recall an exposure to chickenpox or shingles 10-21 days before rash onset

  9. Common Conditions that Might Be Confused with Smallpox • Varicella (primary infection with varicella- zoster virus): Most common in children < 10 years; children usually do not have viral prodrome • Disseminated herpes zoster: Immunocompromised or elderly persons; rash looks like varicella, usually begins in dermatomal distribution

  10. Common Conditions that Might Be Confused with Smallpox (Continued) • Impetigo (Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus): Honey-colored crusted plaques with bullae are classic but may begin as vesicles; regional not disseminated rash; patients generally not ill • Drug eruptions: Exposure to medications; rash often generalized

  11. Common Conditions thatMight Be Confused with Smallpox (Continued) • Contact dermatitis: Itching;contact with possible allergens; rash often localized in pattern suggesting external contact • Erythema multiforme minor: Target, “bull’s eye,” or iris lesions; often follows recurrent herpes simplex virus infections; may involve hands and feet (including palms and soles)

  12. Common Conditions thatMight Be Confused with Smallpox (Continued) • Erythema multiforme (including Stevens Johnson Syndrome): Major form involves mucous membranes and conjunctivae;may be target lesions or vesicles • Enteroviral infection, esp. Hand, Foot and Mouth disease: Summer and fall; fever and mild pharyngitis 1-2 days before rash onset; lesions initially maculopapular but evolve into whitish-gray tender, flat often oval vesicles; peripheral distribution (hands, feet and mouth or disseminated)

  13. Common Conditions thatMight Be Confused with Smallpox (Continued) • Disseminated herpes simplex: Lesions indistinguishable from varicella; immunocompromised host • Scabies; insect bites (including fleas): Itching is a major symptom; patient is not febrile and is otherwise well • Molluscum contagiosum: May disseminate in immunocompromised persons

  14. Risk of Smallpox High Risk of Smallpox’ Report Immediately • Febrile prodrome AND • Classic smallpox lesions AND • Lesions in same stage of development

  15. Risk of Smallpox Moderate Risk of Smallpox’Urgent Evaluation • Febrile prodrome AND • One other MAJOR smallpox criterion • OR • Febrile prodrome AND • 2. > 4MINOR smallpox criteria

  16. Risk of Smallpox Low Risk of Smallpox’Manage as Clinically Indicated • No febrile prodrome OR • Febrile prodrome AND • 3. < 4 MINOR smallpox criteria

  17. Suspect Case 1Alachua County • 29 year old female research laboratory worker with history of HA, fever, cough, and papular/vesicular rash • Rash on extremities, lesions same stage • Hx of chickenpox as child • Works in “pox” lab, recently procured large collection of viruses from a retired researcher

  18. Suspect Case 2Orange County • 38 year old male commercial courier worker presents at outpatient clinic with fever, malaise and vesicular rash (including palms) • Law enforcement secures clinic and nearby establishment where girl friend waits • Clinician diagnoses “probable smallpox” and AP and CNN on scene • ID physician “cannot rule out clinically”

  19. Suspect Case 3Broward/Miami-Dade Counties • 34 year old male commercial pilot seen by private MD with fever and pustular rash • Private MD calls CDC and they classify as “moderate risk”. Plan to transfer to referral hospital. • Pt arrives at referral hospital in private automobile. Put in negative pressure room, did “not look very sick” per hospital. • Additional history of contact with nephew with chicken pox 10 days ago obtained. Only symptom was fever. • ID physician “classical varicella”

  20. Suspect Case 4Lee County • 59 year old female transported to ED due to fever, rash, and delirium • Past history UTI treated with 10 days antibiotics, IDDM, no travel • Patient has rash described as vesicular, pustular, same stage of development, lesions <1 mm, present on face, trunk, extremities, some lesions on hands • Two local hospital E.D.s shut down