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  1. Introduction to Tourism Chapter 2: Demand of tourism Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  2. Definitions of tourism demand • Effective or actual demand: actual number of participants in tourism, those who are actually traveling, easily measured, tourism statistics refer to effective demand • Suppressed demand: those who do not travel for some reason with two elements distinguished • No demand: those who are simply do not to wish to travel or are unable to travel Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  3. Suppressed demand • potential demand: those who will travel in the future if their circumstances will change • deferred demand: demand postponed because of a problem in the supply environment Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  4. STEP Analysis • S social factors • T technological factors • E economic factors • P political factors Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  5. Social factors • levels of population growth, its development and density • different travel behavior between population of urban areas and rural areas • other social factors include birth rates, population decline and life expectancy Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  6. Technological factors + Economic Factors Technological Factors • technology increases the access to tourism by lowering the cost or by making the product more accessible Economic Factors • as more highly developed an economy, the greater the levels of tourist demand Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  7. Political factors • degree of government involvement in promoting and providing facilities for tourism depends upon the political complexion of the government • other political restrictions: visa and passport controls as well as tax on travel Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  8. Measuring Demand for Tourism Why governments measure tourism movements? • economic benefits especially through incoming tourism • effects of tourism activity on a country´s balance of payments Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  9. Measurement methods Household surveys • based on knowledge of resident population En Route surveys • surveys of travelers undertaken during their journey Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  10. Measurement methods Destination surveys • used in popular tourism destinations or areas with high tourism activity Survey of suppliers • undertaken in order to gain information on occupancy rates, visitor numbers etc. Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  11. Introduction to Tourism Chapter 3: TourismConsumer Behavior Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  12. Motivation • Cultural background • Physical motivation • Emotional motivation • Personal motivation • Status • Personal development Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  13. Plogs motivation model (1974) • Psychocentic type: self-centered, tend to be conservative in travel patterns, prefer safe destination, taking many return trips (marketing term: ”repeaters”), desire comfort and well developed destination Tendency: lower income Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer

  14. Plogs motivation model (1974) • Allocentric type: are adventurous, motivated to travel and discover new destinations, rarely return to the same place twice (marketing term: “wanderers”), prefer unspoilt and undiscovered destination Tendency: upper income • Midcentric type: majority of population Matthias Remus, Tourism Lecturer