Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation. What is a Monte Carlo simulation?.
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Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin.
John von Neumann (1951)
Distribution Function of Particles: f= f(r,p,t)
--probability of particle occupation of momentum p at location rand time t
f0, i.e. Fermi-Dirac for electrons, Bose-Einstein for phonons, Plank for photons, etc.
Non-equilibrium, e.g. in a high electric field or temperature gradient:
Relaxation Time Approximation
Mazumder et al. 2001
Pop E. et al. 2002