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abgdezhqiklmnxoprstufcyw. Top left: Greek Bottom left: Cherokee Middle: Arabic Top right: Russian. Chapters 5 and 6 – Speech Communities and Language Variation. What is language?. A system of symbols with standard meanings.
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Top left: Greek
Bottom left: Cherokee
Top right: RussianChapters 5 and 6 – Speech Communities and Language Variation
“Our search must be for criteria other than, or at least in addition to, linguistic criteria if we are to gain a useful understanding of ‘speech community.’ (Wardhaugh 118)
A speech community is defined as much by what it is not as what it is. The group must manifest regular relationships between language use and social structure, and there must be norms (Wardhaugh 120)
What is Social Class?• Social class involves groupingpeople together and accordingthem status within societyaccording to the groups theybelong to.What is Social Class?• A number of modern thinkers have tried todefine what makes a particular “socialclass.”– Is it accent?–…neighborhood?–…occupation?–…income?–…wealth?
Determinants of Social Class• Personal performance– Education– Occupation– Income– Awards and achievements• Wealth– Amount– Source• Social orientation– Interactions– Class consciousness– Value orientation
Class Structure in the U.S.• Two upper classes– Upper upper : Old money– Lower upper : New money• Three middle classes– Upper middle : Professional– Middle class : White collar and entrepreneurs– Working class : Blue collar• Two lower classes– Upper lower : Unskilled laborers– Lower lower : Socially and economicallydisadvantaged
Indexes of Social Class• How you look• How you dress• How you talk• What you like to do• Where you live• What your house looks like• What you eat a lot of food, good tasting food, good looking food
Variables of Social Class• Power– The degree to which a person can control otherpeople• Wealth– Objects or symbols owned by people which havevalue attached to them• Prestige– The degree of respect, favorable regard, orimportance accorded to a person by members ofsociety
William Labov’sDepartment Store Study• Saks Fifth Avenue– At 50th Street and 5th Avenue, near the centerof the high fashion shopping district• Macy's– Herald Square. 34th Street and Sixth Avenue,near the garment district• S. Klein– Union Square. 14th Street and Broadway, notfar from the Lower East Side
Nim Chimpsky and his namesake, the famed linguist Noam Chomsky
= bound morphemes
‘Twas brillig, and the slithytoves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe.
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome rathsoutgrabe.
Lo, praise of the prowess of people-kings of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped, we have heard, and what honor the athelings won! Oft Scyld the Scefing tore the mead-bench from squadroned foes, from many a tribe awing the earls.
This worthy lymytour, this noble Frere,
He made alwey a maner louryng chiere
Upon the Somonour, but for honestee
No vileyns word as yet to hym spak he.
This worthy limiter, this noble friar, He turned always a lowering face, and dire, Upon the summoner, but for courtesy No rude and insolent word as yet spoke he.