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Chapter 4: Carbohydrates. Efficient Energy: Necessary Nutrient. 5 Primary Functions of CHO in the Diet. To supply energy to the body To spare protein for tissue synthesis, growth and repair To aid in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids To promote normal lipid metabolism

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chapter 4 carbohydrates

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

Efficient Energy: Necessary Nutrient

5 primary functions of cho in the diet
5 Primary Functions of CHO in the Diet
  • To supply energy to the body
  • To spare protein for tissue synthesis, growth and repair
  • To aid in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids
  • To promote normal lipid metabolism
  • To provide bulk (fiber) in the diet
rda s for cho s
  • 55-65% of total kcals
  • 48-55% from COMPLEX
  • <10 from Simple
sources of cho in diet
Sources of CHO in Diet

Grain Foods: Breads, Cereals, Pasta,

Cookies, Crackers,




Animal Foods: Dairy Products


classification of cho
Classification of CHO

Simple sugars



Complex sugars


monosaccharides fig 4 1
Monosaccharides (Fig. 4-1)
  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Galactose
  • (Fig. 4-1)
soft drinks
Soft Drinks
  • Typical 12 oz beverage contains 38 gm sugar
  • 1tsp = 4-5 gm =

16-20 kcals

So, 38 gm/4 gm per tsp =

9-10 tsp of sugar in each 12 oz can!

  • Maltose (Gluc + Gluc)
  • Sucrose (Gluc + Fruc)
  • Lactose (Galactose + Gluc)
complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharides: grains, veggies, fruit
  • Fiber
  • Glycogen in animals does not provide us with CHO because it degrades when animal dies
simple carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates

Naturally occurring in foods like

  • Milk, honey, fruit, some veggies (high GI)

Added to foods – corn syrup, hf corn syrup, maltose, dextrose

health benefits of dietary fiber
Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber
  • Promotes softer stool and regularity
  • Slows glucose absorption
  • Reduces blood cholesterol/heart disease and cancer risks
  • Reduces hemorrhoids
recommended dietary fiber intake
Recommended Dietary Fiber Intake
  • 20-35 gm of fiber/day (10-13 gm/1000 kcals)
  • Ave. U.S. intake: ~12 gm/day
  • Too much fiber will:
    • require extra intake of fluid
    • bind to some minerals
    • Cause constipation
functional fiber vs whole grain
Functional Fiber VS. Whole Grain
  • Fibrous materials added to foods to boost health benefit
    • I.e. fiber added to yogurt, some breads

CHO Guidelines

  • 1. Intake = 55-65% of total kcal intake
  • Must consume at least 100 gm CHO/day to prevent ketosis but 200-300 gm/day necessary to meet energy needs
  •  3.Limit refined sugars to no more than 10% of total kcal
  • 4.Eat a variety of foods containing fiber – about 25-35 gm fiber/day
  • Lack of Carbs in the diet contributes to production of ketone bodies. Body is not able to break fat down completely so the result is a fat molecule with 3-4 carbons attached to it.
  • Increase in ketones leads to ketosis which disturbs the bodies natural acid/base balance

Fiber Content of Some Fruits

Type Serving Fiber (gm)


Blackberries cup 7.5

Blueberries cup 3.9

Strawberries cup 3.5


*fresh and frozen contain similar amounts


Fiber Content of Beans and Peas

Type Serving Fiber (gm)


Snap cup 4-5

Lima cup 8-9

Pinto cup 6-7

Green Peas cup 7-8


*fresh and frozen contain similar amount


Type SS Kcals Fiber

White 1 sl 55 .5gm

NOWW 1 sl 60 3.0gm

Wheat, whole 1 sl 71 2.0gm

Bagel, plain 104 gm 225 2.0gm

Bagel,Raisin 104 gm 300 4.0gm

Bagel,Wh.Wheat 104 gm 300 6.0gm

Hamb. Bun 1 120 >1gm

Hamb. Bun 1 150 3.0gm


Name Kcal Fiber Sugar

Cap’n Crunch 107 >1.0gm

Corn Flakes 113 >1.0gm

Fr. Mini Wheats 187 6.0gm

Oatmeal Crisp/Alm 220 4.3gm

Special K 120 >1.0gm

Wheat Chex 170 4.0gm

Kashi Heart to Heart 110 5.0gm

snack bars
Snack Bars

Name Kcal Fiber Sugar

HEB 110 1gm 10gm

Nature Valley 180 2gm 11gm

Barbaras bakery 130 3gm 8gm

Harvest Power 240 4gm 16gm

Kashi Go Lean 140 5gm 15gm

types of sweeteners
Types of Sweeteners
  • High-fructose corn syrup
  • Corn syrup
  • Dextrose
  • Maltose
  • Brown sugar
  • Maple syrup
  • Honey
sugar substitutes
Sugar Substitutes
  • Do not promote tooth decay
  • Do not affect blood glucose level
  • Very low calorie
  • Provides trace amount of kcal
  • 300x sweeter than sucrose
  • Excessive intake is linked to bladder cancer in lab animals
  • Warning labels on food
aspartame nutrasweet
Aspartame (NutraSweet)
  • Composed of phenylalanine and aspartic acid
  • 200x sweeter than sucrose
  • 4 kcal/gm, but only a trace amount is needed to sweeten foods
  • Not heat stable
  • Safe when used in moderation (< 4L of diet Coke/day)
  • Not recommended for people with phenylketonuria (PKU)
-Newest substitute made from SUGAR!-3 Chlorines added to sucrose-Heat stable-No bitter aftertaste-Expensive due to patent


  • Sucrose--benchmark of all sweeteners
  • Same caloric content (4 kcals/gm)
  • No health benefit over another
  • Dental caries
  • From a plant
  • 100-300 X sweeter than sugar
  • No kcals
  • Not approved by FDA
  • Available in health food stores
sugar alcohols
Sugar Alcohols
  • Nutrative sweetener
  • I.e. sorbitol, zylitol
  • Fewer kcals
  • Do not promote tooth decay
  • Metabolized more slowly
  • Can cause GI distress
regulation of blood glucose
Regulation of blood glucose
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia

We eat food and it is digested and broken

down into glucose (sugar)

That sugar then enters your bloodstream

and causes you Bg to rise


Bg Levels Return to Normal


Insulin Man

Cells in the Body

  • Once Bg goes above normal/acceptable levels, insulin is released to correct this process
  • Insulin is a messenger contributing to the removal of sugar from the blood. Once Bg return to normal levels, Insulin production ceases until needed again
when diabetes occurs
When Diabetes Occurs. . .

The cells become tired of insulin knocking on their door and they stop listening. Sugar levels build up so the Pancreas keeps releasing more insulin and then insulin levels build up. High levels of both are harmful to the tissues in the body and contribute to the development of Type IIDiabetes!


Cells use sugar they need for energy

What isn’t needed is stored as FAT on our body for later? use

function of insulin
Function of Insulin
  • Promotes glycogen synthesis
  • Increases glucose uptake by the cells
  • Reduces gluconeogenesis
  • Net effect: lowers the blood glucose
  • Promotes Fat Storage
  • Opposite effect of Insulin
  • Causes glycogen to be broken down from Liver/muscles into glucose for energy usage in bloodstream
  • Raises blood glucose
hyper vs hypoglycemia

High blood sugar

>125 mg

Causes release of insulin


Low blood sugar

<40-50 mg

Causes release of Glucagon

Light headed, sleepy

can’t concentrate, headache

Reactive hypoglycemia

Hyper vs. Hypoglycemia
a high complex carbohydrate diet
A High Complex Carbohydrate Diet
  • Rich in fiber
  • Rich in vitamins and minerals
  • Rich in phytochemicals
  • Contains essential fatty acids
  • Rich in antioxidants
  • Promote satiety
health benefits of a high carbohydrate diet
Health Benefits of a High-Carbohydrate Diet
  • Prevent coronary heart disease
  • Prevent certain cancers
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Prevents hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, appendicitis
  • Reduce risk of obesity
recommendation for simple sugar intake
Recommendation for Simple Sugar Intake
  • Low nutrient density
  • Dental caries/Weight gain
  • Recommend no more than 10% of total kcal/day
  • Ave. U.S. intake: 18-24% of total kcal/day
concerns regarding simple sugar
“Concerns” Regarding Simple Sugar
  • Causes Diabetes? Body adjusts to high Bg levels and bar is raised
  • Causes Obesity?Empty kcals, high Bg that drops triggers hunger/eating, continuous cycle
  • Causes Hyperactivity?
  • Considered a carb even though most are fairly low in carbs
  • Higher kcals than regular carbs 7kcals/gm
  • EMPTY kcals but health benefit?

12 oz regular = 150 kcals

150 X 2 = 300 kcals per day

300 X 4 days = 1200 kcals extra/week

1200 X 4 weeks = 4000 kcals

weight gain of ~1.4 # per month!

  • Red wine
  • 5oz = 100-120 kcals X2=200 kcals

200 X 4 days =800 kcals/week

800 X 4 weeks = 3,200 kcals/month

gain ~1# each month


CalculationsRDA for CHO is 60% of total kcalsIf consuming 1800 kcals/day how many GRAMS of CHO should be consumed?1800kcals X .60 = 1080 CHO kcals1080kcals / 4kcals/gm = 270 gm of CHO


% of Simple Sugar in a FoodLabel says food has 110 total kcals per serving with 24 gm CHO and 3 gm sugar.3 gm X 4kcal/gm = 12 sugar kcalskcals of nutrient X / total kcals per serv.(12 sugar kcals / 110 kcal per serv.) X100 =11% sugar