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Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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  1. Chapter 4: Carbohydrates Efficient Energy: Necessary Nutrient

  2. 5 Primary Functions of CHO in the Diet • To supply energy to the body • To spare protein for tissue synthesis, growth and repair • To aid in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids • To promote normal lipid metabolism • To provide bulk (fiber) in the diet

  3. RDA’S FOR CHO’S • 55-65% of total kcals • 48-55% from COMPLEX • <10 from Simple

  4. What Foods Are CHO’S?

  5. Sources of CHO in Diet Grain Foods: Breads, Cereals, Pasta, Cookies, Crackers, Fruits Veggies Legumes Animal Foods: Dairy Products Sugar

  6. Classification of CHO Simple sugars Monosaccharides Disaccharides Complex sugars Polysaccharides

  7. Monosaccharides (Fig. 4-1) • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose • (Fig. 4-1)

  8. Soft Drinks • Typical 12 oz beverage contains 38 gm sugar • 1tsp = 4-5 gm = 16-20 kcals So, 38 gm/4 gm per tsp = 9-10 tsp of sugar in each 12 oz can!

  9. Disaccharides • Maltose (Gluc + Gluc) • Sucrose (Gluc + Fruc) • Lactose (Galactose + Gluc)

  10. Complex Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides: grains, veggies, fruit • Fiber • Glycogen in animals does not provide us with CHO because it degrades when animal dies

  11. Simple Carbohydrates Naturally occurring in foods like • Milk, honey, fruit, some veggies (high GI) Added to foods – corn syrup, hf corn syrup, maltose, dextrose

  12. Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber • Promotes softer stool and regularity • Slows glucose absorption • Reduces blood cholesterol/heart disease and cancer risks • Reduces hemorrhoids

  13. Recommended Dietary Fiber Intake • 20-35 gm of fiber/day (10-13 gm/1000 kcals) • Ave. U.S. intake: ~12 gm/day • Too much fiber will: • require extra intake of fluid • bind to some minerals • Cause constipation

  14. Functional Fiber VS. Whole Grain • Fibrous materials added to foods to boost health benefit • I.e. fiber added to yogurt, some breads

  15. CHO Guidelines • 1. Intake = 55-65% of total kcal intake • Must consume at least 100 gm CHO/day to prevent ketosis but 200-300 gm/day necessary to meet energy needs •  3.Limit refined sugars to no more than 10% of total kcal • 4.Eat a variety of foods containing fiber – about 25-35 gm fiber/day

  16. Ketosis • Lack of Carbs in the diet contributes to production of ketone bodies. Body is not able to break fat down completely so the result is a fat molecule with 3-4 carbons attached to it. • Increase in ketones leads to ketosis which disturbs the bodies natural acid/base balance

  17. Fiber Content of Some Fruits Type Serving Fiber (gm) ________________________________ Blackberries cup 7.5 Blueberries cup 3.9 Strawberries cup 3.5 ________________________________ *fresh and frozen contain similar amounts

  18. Fiber Content of Beans and Peas Type Serving Fiber (gm) _________________________________ Snap cup 4-5 Lima cup 8-9 Pinto cup 6-7 Green Peas cup 7-8 __________________________________ *fresh and frozen contain similar amount

  19. Bread Type SS Kcals Fiber White 1 sl 55 .5gm NOWW 1 sl 60 3.0gm Wheat, whole 1 sl 71 2.0gm Bagel, plain 104 gm 225 2.0gm Bagel,Raisin 104 gm 300 4.0gm Bagel,Wh.Wheat 104 gm 300 6.0gm Hamb. Bun 1 120 >1gm Hamb. Bun 1 150 3.0gm

  20. Cereals Name Kcal Fiber Sugar Cap’n Crunch 107 >1.0gm Corn Flakes 113 >1.0gm Fr. Mini Wheats 187 6.0gm Oatmeal Crisp/Alm 220 4.3gm Special K 120 >1.0gm Wheat Chex 170 4.0gm Kashi Heart to Heart 110 5.0gm

  21. Snack Bars Name Kcal Fiber Sugar HEB 110 1gm 10gm Nature Valley 180 2gm 11gm Barbaras bakery 130 3gm 8gm Harvest Power 240 4gm 16gm Kashi Go Lean 140 5gm 15gm

  22. Types of Sweeteners • High-fructose corn syrup • Corn syrup • Dextrose • Maltose • Brown sugar • Maple syrup • Honey

  23. Sugar Substitutes • Do not promote tooth decay • Do not affect blood glucose level • Very low calorie

  24. Saccharin • Provides trace amount of kcal • 300x sweeter than sucrose • Excessive intake is linked to bladder cancer in lab animals • Warning labels on food

  25. Aspartame (NutraSweet) • Composed of phenylalanine and aspartic acid • 200x sweeter than sucrose • 4 kcal/gm, but only a trace amount is needed to sweeten foods • Not heat stable • Safe when used in moderation (< 4L of diet Coke/day) • Not recommended for people with phenylketonuria (PKU)

  26. -Newest substitute made from SUGAR!-3 Chlorines added to sucrose-Heat stable-No bitter aftertaste-Expensive due to patent Splenda

  27. Sweeteners • Sucrose--benchmark of all sweeteners • Same caloric content (4 kcals/gm) • No health benefit over another • Dental caries

  28. Stevia • From a plant • 100-300 X sweeter than sugar • No kcals • Not approved by FDA • Available in health food stores

  29. Sugar Alcohols • Nutrative sweetener • I.e. sorbitol, zylitol • Fewer kcals • Do not promote tooth decay • Metabolized more slowly • Can cause GI distress

  30. Regulation of blood glucose • Insulin • Glucagon • Hyperglycemia • Hypoglycemia

  31. We eat food and it is digested and broken down into glucose (sugar) That sugar then enters your bloodstream and causes you Bg to rise

  32. Bg Levels Return to Normal = Insulin Man Cells in the Body • Once Bg goes above normal/acceptable levels, insulin is released to correct this process • Insulin is a messenger contributing to the removal of sugar from the blood. Once Bg return to normal levels, Insulin production ceases until needed again

  33. When Diabetes Occurs. . . The cells become tired of insulin knocking on their door and they stop listening. Sugar levels build up so the Pancreas keeps releasing more insulin and then insulin levels build up. High levels of both are harmful to the tissues in the body and contribute to the development of Type IIDiabetes!

  34. Cells use sugar they need for energy What isn’t needed is stored as FAT on our body for later? use

  35. Function of Insulin • Promotes glycogen synthesis • Increases glucose uptake by the cells • Reduces gluconeogenesis • Net effect: lowers the blood glucose • Promotes Fat Storage

  36. Glucagon • Opposite effect of Insulin • Causes glycogen to be broken down from Liver/muscles into glucose for energy usage in bloodstream • Raises blood glucose

  37. Hyper High blood sugar >125 mg Causes release of insulin Hypo Low blood sugar <40-50 mg Causes release of Glucagon Light headed, sleepy can’t concentrate, headache Reactive hypoglycemia Hyper vs. Hypoglycemia

  38. A High Complex Carbohydrate Diet • Rich in fiber • Rich in vitamins and minerals • Rich in phytochemicals • Contains essential fatty acids • Rich in antioxidants • Promote satiety

  39. Health Benefits of a High-Carbohydrate Diet • Prevent coronary heart disease • Prevent certain cancers • Lowers cholesterol • Prevents hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, appendicitis • Reduce risk of obesity

  40. Recommendation for Simple Sugar Intake • Low nutrient density • Dental caries/Weight gain • Recommend no more than 10% of total kcal/day • Ave. U.S. intake: 18-24% of total kcal/day

  41. “Concerns” Regarding Simple Sugar • Causes Diabetes? Body adjusts to high Bg levels and bar is raised • Causes Obesity?Empty kcals, high Bg that drops triggers hunger/eating, continuous cycle • Causes Hyperactivity?

  42. Alcohol • Considered a carb even though most are fairly low in carbs • Higher kcals than regular carbs 7kcals/gm • EMPTY kcals but health benefit?

  43. Beer 12 oz regular = 150 kcals 150 X 2 = 300 kcals per day 300 X 4 days = 1200 kcals extra/week 1200 X 4 weeks = 4000 kcals weight gain of ~1.4 # per month!

  44. Wine • Red wine • 5oz = 100-120 kcals X2=200 kcals 200 X 4 days =800 kcals/week 800 X 4 weeks = 3,200 kcals/month gain ~1# each month

  45. CalculationsRDA for CHO is 60% of total kcalsIf consuming 1800 kcals/day how many GRAMS of CHO should be consumed?1800kcals X .60 = 1080 CHO kcals1080kcals / 4kcals/gm = 270 gm of CHO

  46. % of Simple Sugar in a FoodLabel says food has 110 total kcals per serving with 24 gm CHO and 3 gm sugar.3 gm X 4kcal/gm = 12 sugar kcalskcals of nutrient X / total kcals per serv.(12 sugar kcals / 110 kcal per serv.) X100 =11% sugar