Important Terms • Producer/Autotroph (Auto = self, troph = feeder) • organisms that produce their own food directly from the sun’s energy. • Take in energy from their surroundings and and store it in complex molecules such as carbohydrates. • Use the process of photosynthesis to make complex molecules Ex.
Important Terms • Primary Consumer – Feeds on plants. All are herbivores. • Secondary Consumer – Feeds on primary consumers. May be omnivore or carnivore • Tertiary Consumer – Feeds on secondary consumer. May be omnivore or carnivore • Quaternary Consumer – Feeds on tertiary consumer. May be omnivore or carnivore.
Important Terms • Trophic Level – group of organisms whos energy source (the sun) is the same number of steps away from the sun. • Energy flows from producer consumer. • Producers are always the 1sttrophic level • Heterotrophs (consumers) are always at least the 2ndtrophic level
Trophic levels are different than consumer level • Level 5 • Level 4 • Level 3 • Level 2 • Level 1
Biogeochemical Cycles • Water Cycle (hydrological) • How water is transferred from the atmosphere to earth, through organisms and back to the atmosphere • Carbon Cycle • How carbon dioxide and oxygen are cycled from the atmosphere through organisms and back to the atmosphere. • Nitrogen Cycle • How organisms convert (fix) unusable nitrogen in the atmosphere to usable nitrogen to make proteins
Carbon Cycle TERMS • Respiration • Photosynthesis • Combustion • Decomposition • Fossil Fuels
FOSSIL FUELS • Fossil fuels are made from organisms that died millions of years ago and were buried • They are “non-renewable”, meaning there is a limited supply. • Examples: • Coal, oil and gas
Renewable Resources • Resources that have unlimited supply. • Often considered “green” • Often do not release harmful pollutants and/or carbon dioxide • Examples: • Wind, solar, nuclear, geothermal, hydroelectric (water)
Pollution’s Toll • Too much pollution disrupts the relationships in an ecosystem. ex) What would happen if a pesticide killed the shrews living in the ecosystem below?
Acid Rain • Acid rain is formed when nitric and sulfuric acidis released into the atmosphere from coal-burning power plants. • An increase in the acidity of an ecosystem causes many organisms to die • Ecosystems downwind from factories experience the most acid rain
Global Warming • When fossil fuels are burned to make energy, they release CO2 and other harmful substances into the atmosphere. • High levels of CO2 have been linked to increasing temperatures on Earth (Greenhouse Effect) • Increasing temperatures on Earth will lead to climate changes (Global Warming)
Competition for resources • Limiting factors – any condition of the environment that limits the size of a population • Carrying capacity – The number of organisms that can be supported by a particular ecosystem • Overpopulation - the condition of having a population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a population crash
Human Overpopulation • Birth rate/Death rate United States 14.1/8.7 Australia 12.7/7.3 Iraq 34.2/6.0 Iran 17.5/5.4 Japan 10.0/8.5 Italy 8.9/10.1 Russia 9.7/13.9 • Emigration/Immigration • The U.S. population is growing by about 2.5 million people each year. Of that, immigration contributes over one million people to the U.S. population annually. • Exponential growth rate of human populations
In this activity we will compare three different countries… United States Afghanistan Italy
Population Pyramids To the right is a population pyramid based on a make-believe population. To compare different countries populations, we can use a population pyramid.
Population Pyramids can… Compare males vs. females in a population Compare different age groups in a population
Let’s review... What is the most populated age group in this population? The most populated age group is those between 20 and 24 years in age. Predict what age group will be the most populated in 15 years. Assuming that there is not a major growth period in this population in the next 15 years, the group that is currently 20-24 years old will be in the 35-39 age group.
Let’s review... About how many children in this population are under the age of 5? Approximately 12.5% of the population is 0-4 years old. How many of them are female? Looking on the left side of the pyramid in the 0-4 age bracket, about 6% of those under age 5 are female.
U.S. vs. Afghanistan Afghanistan United States
Now, let’s compare countries again…Rapid vs Slow Growth What do you notice about the populations from these countries? Do you notice that Afghanistan has more people in the lower age brackets? The U.S. has more people in the middle age bracket. Which do you think represents Rapid Growth? Slow?
RAPID GROWTH • Underdeveloped or developing countries • Wide base, narrow top = young population • High Birth Rates
SLOW GROWTH • Developed Countries • # young is less than # of middle aged • Wide center portion “pear shaped”
Now, let’s compare countries again… Based on these graphs, what is one issue that each country will have to face in the future??
Now, let’s compare countries again… Based on these graphs, what is one issue that each country will have to face in the future?? Afghanistan: Afghanistan is clearly a growing country. It has proportionally many more younger people. The country will have to supply more and more resources like food and energy for its growing population.
Now, let’s compare countries again… Based on these graphs, what is one issue that each country will have to face in the future?? U.S.: The U.S. is a stabilized population with little growth. It will have an aging middle class in years to come. Because the average age in the U.S. continues to rise, it may have a difficult time supporting its large number of aging citizens.
Now lets look at Italy… To the right is a population pyramid from the year 2000 and a projected (predicted) pyramid for the year 2025. How does Italy differ from the first two countries? What is expected to happen it Italy in the next 16 years?
Now lets look at Italy… To the right is a population pyramid from the year 2000 and a projected (predicted) pyramid for the year 2025. How does Italy differ from the first two countries? Italy is a country who’s population is on a decline. What is expected to happen it Italy in the next 16 years? The number of young people in Italy is expected to continue to decrease over the next decade.
NEGATIVE GROWTH • Death Rate Exceeds the Birth Rate • Middle Age Migration/Job Opportunities
Now lets look at Italy… What are some issues that Italians face in the future?
Now lets look at Italy… What are some issues that Italians face in the future? Italians face a declining population. That means a smaller work force and a shrinking population of the Italian culture and heritage.
Summary… test yourself To the right is a comparison of France and Kenya. Answer the following questions: 1. What is a potential concern for each country for the future? 2. What is a major difference between the two populations in terms of life expectancy? Predict why. 3. Label each country as “A growing country” or “A stable/declining country”. 4. One country is growing exponentially. Which one?
Summary… answers FRANCE What is a potential concern for each country for the future? France is a stabilized population with little growth. It will have an aging middle class in years to come. Because the average age in France continues to rise, how will the population support its large number of aging citizens? What is a major difference between the two populations in terms of life expectancy? France has many more people growing into their 80’s and even 90’s compared to Kenya. This may be because France has better health care for the sick and elderly. 3. Label each country as “A growing country” or “A stable/declining country”. This country has a stable/declining population. One country is growing exponentially. Which one? (Not this one.)
Summary… answers KENYA What is a potential concern for each country for the future? Kenya clearly is a growing country. It has proportionally many more younger people than France. The country will have to supply more and more resources like food and energy for its growing population. What is a major difference between the two populations in terms of life expectancy? Kenya has many fewer people growing into their 70’s and even 80’s compared to France. This may be because Kenya has poorer health care and fewer nursing programs for the elderly. 3. Label each country as “A growing country” or “A stable/declining country”. This country has a growing population. One country is growing exponentially. Which one? Kenya is definitely growing exponentially.
Human Population Pyramid: Make your own and analyze your data Be prepared to discuss your answers Open Note Quiz on Population Next Class Begin Population Pyramids Lab
You can research population pyramids, and other info having to do with population for any country worldwide. Visit the website below: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/
Finding Enough Energy • Fossil fuels are linked to greenhouse emissions and global warming • Fossil fuels are non-renewable (do not replenish themselves naturally) • Renewable resources can replenish themselves naturally (trees) are being looked at as an alternative to fossil fuels
Alternatives to Fossil Fuels • Nuclear Energy • Geothermal Energy • Wind Energy • Solar Energy
Eukaryotic Cells are Larger than Prokaryotic cells Organisms that are Eukaryotic: Organisms that are Prokaryotic: Every bacterial cell Eubacteria Archeabacteria Every organisms that is not bacteria • Animals • Plants • Fungus • Protists
Euk. vs. Pro. Cells Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells Small No chromosomes, only small circle of DNA (plasmid) No membrane-bound organelles. • Large • Have chromosomes • Have membrane-bound organelles • Nucleus • Mitochondria • Centrioles
Animal Plant Cell wall Chloroplasts Large vacuole No centrioles • No cell wall • No chloroplast • Small vacuoles • Has centrioles
Please review the following organelles: • Cell wall • Cell membrane • Nucleus • Mitochondria • Chloroplast • cytoplasm* (cytosol) • vacuole
Bacteria Facts • Prokaryotic • Small, no nucleus, kingdoms Archeabacteria and Eubacteria • Beneficial and harmful • Cause disease • Make food • Important for digestion • Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines
How Bacteria Affect Humans • Decompsers – break down material • Nitrogen Fixation – fix nitrogen for plants • Food – yogurt, olives, pickles • Drugs - insulin • Cause disease – (pathogen = disease causing agent) TB, bubonic plague, Lyme disease • Cause illness – botulism, salmonella, E. Coli
Controlling Bacterial Diseases • Antibiotics (penicillin) and vaccination (tetanus) • Sanitation • Cooking/Refrigeration
*Bacterial Resistance 1. When strong bacteria survive doses of antibiotics. 2. The strong bacteria survive and pass this strength (immunity) on to their offspring 3. Eventually all bacteria have a resistance to an antibiotic and a stronger one must be used