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How Computers Work - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How Computers Work. You Will Learn…. That a computer requires both hardware and software to work About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices. Hardware Needs Software to Work. Hardware

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you will learn
You Will Learn…
  • That a computer requires both hardware and software to work
  • About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer
  • How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices
hardware needs software to work
Hardware Needs Softwareto Work
  • Hardware
    • Physical components of the computer (monitor, keyboard, memory chips, hard drive)
  • Software
    • Set of instructions that directs hardware to accomplish a task
binary number system
Binary Number System
  • Technology of storing and reading only two values: on and off
  • Bits and bytes
  • Originated in the 1940s by John Atanasoff
pc hardware components
PC Hardware Components
  • Input/output devices: outside computer case
  • Processing and storage components: inside the case
  • Elements required by hardware devices to operate:
    • Method for CPU to communicate with it
    • Software to instruct and control it
    • Electricity to power it
hardware used for input and output
Hardware Used forInput and Output
  • Connects to computer case by ports
  • Most popular input devices:
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
  • Most popular output devices:
    • Monitor
    • Printer
hardware inside the case
Hardware Inside the Case
  • Motherboard (contains CPU, memory, etc.)
  • Floppy drive, hard drive, and CD-ROM drive (permanent storage)
  • Power supply with cords supplying electricity to all devices inside the case


hardware inside the case14
Hardware Inside the Case
  • Circuit boards (used by CPU to communicate with devices inside/outside the case)
    • Contain microchips, which are most often manufactured using CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology
  • Cables that connect devices to circuit boards and the motherboard
    • Data cables
    • Power cables (or power cords)
peripheral devices
Peripheral Devices
  • Communicate with CPU but are not located directly on the motherboard
  • Some are linked by expansion cards in expansion slots on the motherboard
the motherboard
The Motherboard
  • Largest, most important circuit board in the computer
  • Contains the CPU, with which all devices must communicate:
    • Installed directly on the motherboard
    • Linked by a cable connected to a port on the motherboard
    • Indirectly linked by expansion cards
  • Also called the main board or system board
major components on all motherboards
For processing:


Chip set

For temporary storage:


Cache memory

Electrical system:

Power supply connections

For communication with other devices:


Expansion slots

System clock

Programming and setup data:

Flash ROM

CMOS setup chip

Major Components on All Motherboards
the cpu
  • Most important chip (the microprocessor)
  • Performs most of actual data processing
the chip set
The Chip Set
  • Controls flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU
  • Provides careful timing of activities
cpu and chip set manufacturers
CPU and Chip Set Manufacturers
  • IBM-compatible PCs
    • Intel Corporation
    • AMD
    • VIA
    • SiS
    • Cyrix
  • Macintosh (Apple Computer, Inc.)
    • Motorola Corporation
storage devices
Temporary (primary storage, or memory)

Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them

Faster to access than permanent storage

Permanent (secondary storage)

Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing

Storage Devices
primary storage devices
Primary Storage Devices
  • Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards
    • Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory
  • Common types of boards that hold memory chips
    • SIMMs (single inline memory modules)
    • DIMMs (dual inline memory modules)
    • RIMMs (memory modules manufactured by Rambus, Inc.)
secondary storage devices
Secondary Storage Devices
  • Hard disks
  • Floppy disks
  • Zip drives
  • CD-ROMs
  • DVDs
hard drive
Hard Drive
  • Uses EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology
  • Motherboard can accommodate up to four IDE devices on one system
  • IDE provides two connectors on a motherboard for two data cables
motherboard components used for communication among devices
Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices
  • The bus
    • System of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission
    • Includes a data bus, address bus, and control bus
system clock
System Clock
  • Synchronizes activity on the motherboard
  • Sends continuous pulses over the bus that are used by different components to control the pace of activity
  • Frequency of activity is measured in MHz,or 1 million cycles per second
bus lines44
Bus Lines
  • Lines of a bus, including data, instruction, and power lines, often extend to the expansion slots
  • Types of expansion slots
    • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
      • For high-speed input/output devices)
    • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)
      • For a video card
    • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)
      • Used by older and/or slower devices)
interface expansion cards
Interface (Expansion) Cards
  • Enable CPU to connect to external device or to a network
the electrical system
The Electrical System
  • Power supply
    • Most important component of computer’s electrical system
    • Converts/reduces electricity to voltage the computer can handle
    • Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case
instructions and data stored on the motherboard
Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard
    • Holds software needed to start up PC and begin loading an OS
    • Most are flash ROM
  • CMOS chip
    • Stores setup (configuration) information
      • Setup information can also be set by means of jumpers and DIP (dual inline package) switches
    • Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off
how a cpu works and communicates with other devices
How a CPU Works and Communicates with Other Devices
  • Responsible for most processing
  • Depends on chip set, system clock, and buses to move data to and from I/O devices, memory, and secondary storage
  • Only two states: on and off
components of a cpu
Components of a CPU
  • Input/output (I/O) unit
    • Manages data/instructions entering/leaving CPU
  • One or more arithmetic logic units (ALU)
    • Does all comparisons and calculations
  • Control unit
    • Manages all activities inside CPU itself
how the cpu works
How the CPU Works
  • Registers hold data and instructions while it processes them
  • Memory cache holds data and instructions just before they are processed
  • Internal bus runs at different speed than external bus
how the cpu uses memory
How the CPU Uses Memory
  • CPU accesses memory by way of the data bus
the control bus
The Control Bus
  • System clock control line
    • Provides timing for motherboard components
  • Interrupt request (IRQ) lines
    • Used by devices to get CPU’s attention; assigned at startup
  • Read/write control lines
    • How to use address on address bus (read or write operation)
  • I/O control lines
    • How to use address lines (memory addresses or I/O addresses)
understanding binary
Understanding Binary
  • With computers, everything is binary; every process is a series of zeros and ones
  • Decimal and hexadecimal notations are two shorthand ways of displaying binary numbers
understanding binary72
Understanding Binary
  • Hexadecimal notation (hex)
    • Shorthand way to display long binary numbers; easier for humans to understand
    • Built on multiples of sixteen
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) standard
    • Has assigned an 8-bit code for letters, symbols, and other characters
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • An introduction to the inside of the computer
  • Initial insight into how hardware components of a computer system work
  • How a CPU works and communicates with other devices
  • Understanding binary