How Computers Work - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How Computers Work
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How Computers Work

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  1. How Computers Work

  2. You Will Learn… • That a computer requires both hardware and software to work • About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer • How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices

  3. Hardware Needs Softwareto Work • Hardware • Physical components of the computer (monitor, keyboard, memory chips, hard drive) • Software • Set of instructions that directs hardware to accomplish a task

  4. Functions of the Microcomputer

  5. Binary Number System • Technology of storing and reading only two values: on and off • Bits and bytes • Originated in the 1940s by John Atanasoff

  6. Binary Number System

  7. Binary Number System

  8. PC Hardware Components • Input/output devices: outside computer case • Processing and storage components: inside the case • Elements required by hardware devices to operate: • Method for CPU to communicate with it • Software to instruct and control it • Electricity to power it

  9. Hardware Used forInput and Output • Connects to computer case by ports • Most popular input devices: • Keyboard • Mouse • Most popular output devices: • Monitor • Printer

  10. Ports

  11. Input Devices

  12. Output Devices

  13. Hardware Inside the Case • Motherboard (contains CPU, memory, etc.) • Floppy drive, hard drive, and CD-ROM drive (permanent storage) • Power supply with cords supplying electricity to all devices inside the case continued…

  14. Hardware Inside the Case • Circuit boards (used by CPU to communicate with devices inside/outside the case) • Contain microchips, which are most often manufactured using CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology • Cables that connect devices to circuit boards and the motherboard • Data cables • Power cables (or power cords)

  15. Peripheral Devices • Communicate with CPU but are not located directly on the motherboard • Some are linked by expansion cards in expansion slots on the motherboard

  16. The Motherboard • Largest, most important circuit board in the computer • Contains the CPU, with which all devices must communicate: • Installed directly on the motherboard • Linked by a cable connected to a port on the motherboard • Indirectly linked by expansion cards • Also called the main board or system board

  17. The Motherboard

  18. Ports on a Motherboard

  19. For processing: CPU Chip set For temporary storage: RAM Cache memory Electrical system: Power supply connections For communication with other devices: Traces Expansion slots System clock Programming and setup data: Flash ROM CMOS setup chip Major Components on All Motherboards

  20. The CPU • Most important chip (the microprocessor) • Performs most of actual data processing

  21. The Chip Set • Controls flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU • Provides careful timing of activities

  22. The Chip Set

  23. CPU and Chip Set Manufacturers • IBM-compatible PCs • Intel Corporation • AMD • VIA • SiS • Cyrix • Macintosh (Apple Computer, Inc.) • Motorola Corporation

  24. Temporary (primary storage, or memory) Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them Faster to access than permanent storage Permanent (secondary storage) Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing Storage Devices

  25. Primary and Secondary Storage

  26. Primary Storage Devices • Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards • Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory • Common types of boards that hold memory chips • SIMMs (single inline memory modules) • DIMMs (dual inline memory modules) • RIMMs (memory modules manufactured by Rambus, Inc.)

  27. RAM Chips

  28. Types of RAM Modules

  29. Secondary Storage Devices • Hard disks • Floppy disks • Zip drives • CD-ROMs • DVDs

  30. Hard Drive • Uses EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology • Motherboard can accommodate up to four IDE devices on one system • IDE provides two connectors on a motherboard for two data cables

  31. Motherboard with Connectors

  32. A Typical System

  33. Hard Drive’s Power Supply

  34. Floppy Drive Cable

  35. Floppy Drive Connection

  36. CD-ROM Drive

  37. Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices • The bus • System of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission • Includes a data bus, address bus, and control bus

  38. Bus Lines

  39. Data Bus

  40. System Clock • Synchronizes activity on the motherboard • Sends continuous pulses over the bus that are used by different components to control the pace of activity • Frequency of activity is measured in MHz,or 1 million cycles per second

  41. System Clock

  42. Bus Lines • Lines of a bus, including data, instruction, and power lines, often extend to the expansion slots • Types of expansion slots • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) • For high-speed input/output devices) • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) • For a video card • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) • Used by older and/or slower devices)

  43. Bus Lines

  44. Types of Expansion Slots

  45. Interface (Expansion) Cards • Enable CPU to connect to external device or to a network

  46. Interface (Expansion) Cards

  47. Full View of a Video Card