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Fanciful composite. Vertebral articulation. (Body). Rib articulation. Frog. sacral. (cervical). Sternum is associated with pectoral girdle (not with thoracic ribs). Alligator. Ribs meet at sternum. Have short ribs. Lack ribs. Chevron bones.

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Fanciful composite

Vertebral articulation

(Body)

Rib articulation


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Frog

sacral

(cervical)

Sternum is associated with pectoral girdle (not with thoracic ribs)


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Alligator

Ribs meet at sternum

Have short ribs

Lack ribs

Chevron bones

Sternum is single anteriorly, splits posteriorly


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Turtle

Turtle thoracic vertebrae,

sacrum and first caudal vertebrae

are fused to the carapace.

Turtles lack true lumbar vertebrae.


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Pigeon

Ribs meet sternum

flexible

Fused caudal vertebrae

Sternum is large and ossified, with a prominent keel


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Cat

Anterior

Articulate with ribs

7 cervical

Posterior

3-5 vertebrae

3-40

Sternum is a series of separate bones (jointed rod)

Human: 3-part plate


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Human

7

12

5

5 fused

3-5 fused


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In amphibians, ribs are

reduced/lacking.

Frogs have only sacral ribs.

Frog

sacral

(cervical)

Sternum is associated with pectoral girdle (not with thoracic ribs)


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Turtles have no cervical ribs.

The thoracic ribs are long, flat,

and fused to the carapace.

Sacral ribs unite with the pelvic girdle.

Turtles have no sternum


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In crocodilians, ribs are double-headed.

Most vertebrae bear ribs.

Thoracic vertebrae have 2-part ribs.

Alligator

Ribs meet at sternum

Have short ribs

Lack ribs

2 fused

Chevron bones

Sternum is single anteriorly, splits posteriorly


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In birds, all 5 groups of vertebrae bear ribs.

Anterior thoracic ribs unite with sternum.

Thoracic ribs have 2 parts.

Pigeon

Ribs meet sternum

flexible

Fused caudal vertebrae

Sternum is large and ossified, with a prominent keel


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Cat

Anterior

Articulate with ribs

7 cervical

Thoracic vertebrae have 2-part ribs.

Mammals lack ribs in the lumbar and caudal regions.

Posterior

Sternum is a series of separate bones (jointed rod)

In human, the sternum is a 3-part plate