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14 Presenting Qualitative Data. For 2004: consider starting with the Crowd warmer up, that is telling the Biggest lie you have ever heard Then do the writing on the board of What makes a good and bad presentation Ideas for making sure your presentation is good.

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14 presenting qualitative data
14 Presenting Qualitative Data

For 2004: consider starting with the

Crowd warmer up, that is telling the

Biggest lie you have ever heard

Then do the writing on the board of

What makes a good and bad presentation

Ideas for making sure your presentation is good

philosophy of communication
philosophy of communication

tell them what you are going to say

say it clearly

summarize what you have said

Effective Communication:

"Make them laugh, make them cry, make them think."

presentation plan
Presentation Plan

Topic (clear in your mind)

Audience (their backgrounds, interest, knowing terminology) Skagit Leadership tomorrow



Time Frame (15 minutes 5-8 main points)

presentation plan6
Presentation Plan

Learning Principles

  • Motivation (content relevant to audience's experience, or to important issues)
  • Association (associate material to ideas, concepts, experiences they already have)
  • Repetition (hear things over and over)
  • Senses (appealing to more may get more retention
presenter functions
Presenter Functions

Set tone or mood early

Objectives stated clearly, early



Alternative view of same idea

Indicate your mastery of material

Active involvement of audience

Bridging/transitions between ideas


frame presentation learning objectives step 1
Frame Presentation: Learning Objectives Step 1:

Describe the

  • information,
  • skills,
  • behaviors, or
  • perspectives

that participants in the session will acquire through attendance and participation.

learning objectives step 2
Learning Objectives Step 2 :

Clearly identify the

  • outcomes or
  • actions

participants can expect to demonstrate as a result of the educational experience.

Use the action words

learning objectives step 3
Learning Objectives Step 3:

Write the learning objectives that relate to these outcomes and that reflect the content of the session.

Objectives describe the behavior of the learner, and a. are stated clearly; b. define or describe an action; c. are measurable, in terms of time, space, amount, and / or frequency.

learning objectives for this class
Learning Objectives for this class

describe different methods of presenting qualitative data, and their applicability to answering research questions posed

list factors to consider in making a good presentation

display of data is crucial
Display of data is crucial:

“a visual format that presents information systematically, so user can draw valid conclusions and take needed action”

Required reading in Bernard Ch 16, is good here

Miles and Huberman: Qualitative Data Analysis is excellent resource

choice of forms of presentation
Choice of Forms of Presentation

mode of presentation: from simpler to more complex forms

  • start with quotes


  • don’t want to lose people by complex arguments

data sufficiency & reliability

  • describe triangulation if used, ie all methods produce same information (or didn't)
choice of forms of presentation16
Choice of Forms of Presentation

select forms of presentation which best explain the data

be creative: these are not the only forms available, they are modifiable

know your audience

  • do you have to explain terms/concepts you use?

if so, do it well

use of visuals
Use of visuals

Best speeches ever, except perhaps one of the first, were made without visual enhancements

One of the earliest used two stone tablets


quotes should support themes

balance between excessive analysis, and lengthy quotes without any analysis

  • "analysis is the search for patterns in data and for ideas that help explain why those patterns are there in the first place" Bernard

“smoking is a handicap. Other handicapped people get ramps and such things. Smokers get kicked out."


quotes are memorable, may be the only aspect of your paper/presentation people remember

your EXAMPLES…….

maps diagrams

patient’s home

social map of area

  • Slides or photographs

body map


Very culture dependent, if you use, know your audience and the effect it will have


  • Following cartoon, I use for my tourism and health of local populations talk, at the end

A thousand words

Concern about exploiting people financially by showing their photographs

Ethical issues

Cultural issues as well in sense that photograph steals the soul

Permission and model release

matrix displays
Matrix Displays

Not everyone is visually oriented to them

Trying to produce good ones help you understand your data,

  • is analysis

Involves information crossing two dimensions to see how they interact


How people

  • Divide up domains
  • Connect domains
taxonomies of illness lexicon
taxonomies of illness (lexicon)

could derive from informant interviews, or from successive pile sorts

Tree structure

Lend themselves to multi-dimensional scaling (MDS)

  • e.g. Pain Descriptors for Anglo-American Dentists
box and arrow model
Box and Arrow Model

Causal Flow Charts

  • takes a long time to get right,
  • if do it the night before, connect arrows between everything

Show business

presentation handouts
Presentation Handouts

Part of syllabus obtained beforehand

Distributed before or afterwards

Content: Essential elements

  • Graphics
  • References
  • Contact info
  • Note space

Brief or expanded?


If you don't have enough for everyone?

-Distribute to every 2nd or 3rd person

-Offer to send to everyone who gives address

presenting as a group
Presenting as a group

harder to do well if people have varying capabilities

tell audience how the presentation will flow

use the strengths of the individual presenters well

data for communication
Data for Communication:







words feelings emotions microphone
Words, feelings emotions:microphone

Don't use if can project voice and all can hear easily

Can be a hindrance, especially if have to hold it and use hands as well

Can be booming and obtrusive

best is a lavalier clipped to you, especially if you move around (get right volume level)

  • wired or wireless?

if have a microphone on a stand,

  • if it is cardiod (directional), then it will sound very boomy/bassy if you are close (3-4 inches), so stand back
  • if it is omnidirectional, then it will feed back (howl), if the gain is turned up
    • better you speak close to it, and not so loud

with any microphone find out where the gain control is

pictures visual information presented
PICTURESvisual information presented

slides, overheads,

  • don't talk and expect people to read material that isn't spoken out

FONT, font, font, font, FONT, font, font

Font: serif (text) sans-serif (visuals)

visual displays should reinforce what you are presenting orally

Passing out material (photos, cards), maybe in small group and only if few (1-2) materials

35 mm slide projector
35 mm slide projector

can do with large and small audiences

  • less intimate

problem in putting too much on slides so they are illegible -7 lines max

  • Should be able to read content without loupe

modern computer graphics can distract from content, keep it simple

35 mm slide projector46
35 mm slide projector

if put up quotes and have a large audience far from screen, read the quote

  • always read or not?

point out stuff, don't wave it around

use it sparingly for effect


more intimacy

useful to write on during session, if interacting

you may stand in the way for some in the audience

image may be too low, or too small

image not centered, or focused

small movements of transparency get magnified


less popular these days (UBC health sciences)

takes more time,

audience may appreciate the more relaxed style

good way to interact and present material

more common in most parts of the world

often just a board painted black

+chalk-semblance material

Poor handwriting: WRITE LARGE

white marker board
white marker board

more modern, easy use of colors

can be harder to read because of reflections

don't use permanent markers

easel with paper that is folded over flip charts ngt
easel with paper that is folded over FLIP CHARTS (NGT)

have a record of what went on

especially useful if it involves audience

november 19 1863
November 19, 1863
  • Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.
  • Met on battlefield (great)
  • Dedicate portion of field - fitting!
  • Unfinished work (great tasks)
not on agenda
Not on Agenda!
  • Dedicate
  • Consecrate
  • Hallow(in narrow sense)
  • Add or detract
  • Note or remember what we say
review of key objectives critical success factors
Review of Key Objectives& Critical Success Factors
  • What makes nation unique
    • Conceived in Liberty
    • Men are equal
  • Shared vision
    • New birth of freedom
    • Gov’t of/for/by the people
  • New nation
  • Civil war
  • Dedicate field
  • Dedicated to unfinished work
  • New birth of freedom
  • Government not perish
computer presentation powerpoint
computer presentation (Powerpoint)
  • overhead screen
  • special LCD projector
    • Have a backup until/even if you are confident
  • people may focus on the colors, other sidelights, rather than on the material
    • Limited colors with high contrast, or none in case of people being color blind
    • How it looks on the computer screen is not how it will look projected
cognitive style of powerpoint
Cognitive style of powerpoint

Inhibits discussion

  • Presenter-oriented,
  • NOT content oriented
  • NOT audience oriented

Replaces serious analysis with

  • Chartjunk
  • Over-produced layouts
  • Cheerleader logotypes
  • Branding
  • Corny clip art
cognitive style of powerpoint63
Cognitive style of powerpoint

Impoverished space:

  • Over-generalization
  • Imprecise statements
  • Slogans
  • Abrupt & thinly argued claims
  • Many true statements are too long to fit on a pp slide, so many many slides are needed, "one damn slide after another",… "visual reasoning usually works more effectively when relevant information is shown adjacent in space within our eye span" (Tufte)
cognitive style of powerpoint64
Cognitive style of powerpoint

Bullet Outlines Dilute Thought

increasingly seen in paper reports

encourages laziness

done instead of telling stories

Lists communicate: sequences, priority, simple membership in a set

Gives example of Columbia shuttle Jan 2003 reports made by Boeing engineers

cognitive style of powerpoint65
Cognitive style of powerpoint

Bullet Outlines Dilute Thought

increasingly seen in paper reports

encourages laziness

done instead of telling stories

Lists communicate: sequences, priority, simple membership in a set

Gives example of Columbia shuttle Jan 2003 reports made by Boeing engineers

cognitive style of powerpoint66
Cognitive style of powerpoint

Data transmission speeds

talk: 100 to 160 spoken words per minute

picture worth thousand words

people read 300 to 1000 printed words a minute

printed map or 35 mm slide displays 5 to 40 MB

ppt slide shows ~ 40 words, 8 seconds-worth of silent reading

notes handouts simply reproduce those 40 words

the more intense the detail, the greater the clarity and understanding, less is a bore

cognitive style of powerpoint67
Cognitive style of powerpoint

Metaphor for software corporation itself

big bureaucracy doing

computer programming: deeply hierarchical, nested, highly structured, relentlessly sequential, one-short-line-at-a-time

marketing: fast pace, misdirection, advocacy not analysis, slogan thinking, branding, exaggerated claims, marketplace ethics)

powerpoint cognitive style

cognitive style of powerpoint68
Cognitive style of powerpoint

sets up dominance relationship between speaker & audience (power points with bullets to followers)

POWER IN ROMAN STATE: impression, theatre, persuading those over whom authority is wielded to collude in their subjugation

"power is a matter of presentation"

Elsner: Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450

metaphor of good teaching
Metaphor of good teaching

Explain something with credibility

  • explanation, reasoning, finding things out, questioning, content, evidence, credible authority not patronizing authoritarianism

People learn from stories, and how well they're told

Introducing powerpoint cognitive style into schools

students no longer write in sentences, but learn how to make client pitches and info-mericals

10-20 words, + clip art

improving presentations
Improving presentations

Depend on quality, relevance and integrity of content

Audience boredom usually a result of content failure, not decoration failure

Avoid ready-made templates, elaborate bullet lists

Never read aloud from the slides

Use powerpoint as projector for showing low-resolution color images, graphics and videos that cannot be reproduced as printed handouts at a presentation

"PowerPoint allows speakers to pretend that they are giving a real talk, and audiences to pretend they are listening"