Understanding Food Chapter 22: Flours and Flour Mixtures
Flours Types of Wheat Flour • Whole-Wheat Flour • White Flour • Durum Flour (Semolina) • All-Purpose Flour • Pastry Flour • Cake Flour • Gluten Flour
Flours • Gluten:The protein portion of wheat flour with the elastic characteristics necessary for the structure of most baked products. • Knead:To work the dough into an elastic mass by pushing, stretching, and folding it.
Flours • Starch is one of the compounds in flour that strengthens the baked item through gelatinization, and is one of the factors that contributes to crumb. • Crumb:The texture of a baked product’s interior.
Flours • Kneading is used extensively in bread-making and briefly for biscuits and pastries.
Types of Non-Wheat Flour Rice Flour Rye Flour Cornmeal Flour Soy Flour Buckwheat Flour Triticale Flour Potato Flour Gluten-free Grains and Flours for baking and bread. Treated Flours Aged Flour Bleached Flour Enriched Flour Flours
Flour Mixture Ingredients • Flour mixture ingredients may include: • Sugar • Salt • Liquid • Fat • Eggs • Leavening agents
Functions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following: Sweetening Protective coating Increases the volume Contributes to volume Raises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occur Increases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay staling Helps to brown the outer crust of baked products Sugar
. Salt/flavorings Salt/Flavoring • Small amounts of salt are added to flour mixtures for: • Flavoring • Producing a firmer dough …for improving the: • Volume • Texture • Evenness of cell structure • Shelf-life
Flour Mixture Ingredients • Too much salt inhibits yeast activity, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced and decreasing the volume of the loaf.
Liquid • Hydrate the flour • Gelatinize the starch. • Gluten formation • Solvent for the dry ingredients, • Activates the yeast, • Provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gas.
Fat • Fat performs many functions in baked goods. • It acts as a: • Tenderizer • It adds: • Volume • Structure • Flakiness • Flavor • Color • Resistance to staling • It also plays a role in heat transfer
Eggs • Eggs are added to some flour mixtures: • Structural integrity • Leavening • Color • Flavor • And/or nutrient content
Leavening Agents • Baking soda:A white chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate. • Baking powder:A chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acid(s), and an inert filler such as cornstarch.
Flour Mixture Ingredients • The two main types of baking powder are: • Fast, or single-acting, powder • Slow, or double-acting, powder
Yeast • Yeasts are available in several forms, and are classified on the basis of their activity. • Active yeasts include: • Baker’s yeast • Brewer’s yeast • Yeasts for alcoholic beverages • Inactive yeasts, such as: • Dried brewer’s yeast • Primary- grown yeasts
Flour Mixture Ingredients • The ability of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which are naturally found in air, water, and living organisms, to produce carbon dioxide through fermentation.
Storage of Flour and Flour Mixtures • Flour should be stored in pest-proof containers and kept in a cool, dry place.
Understanding Food Chapter 24: Yeast Breads
Preparation of Yeast Breads • When breads are leavened with carbon dioxide produced by baker’s yeast, they are known as yeast breads. • Yeast bread is prepared by mixing the ingredients into a dense, pliable dough that is kneaded, allowed to rise by fermentation, and then cooked
The fundamental ingredients of any yeast bread are: Flour Liquid Sugar Salt Yeast Fat (optional) Eggs (optional) The four best-known methods for mixing yeast breads are: Straight dough Sponge Batter Rapid Preparation of Yeast Breads
Preparation of Yeast Breads • As the yeast ferments, the dough will double in size as carbon dioxide is produced by the yeast and as enzyme and pH changes take effect.
Preparation of Yeast Breads • Another way to determine if kneading is complete is to stretch some of the dough into a “gluten window.”
Preparation of Yeast Breads • Yeasts are very sensitive to temperature extremes. • Optimal fermentation temperatures: • Activated at 68 to 100°F (20 to 38°C) • Slowing down below 50°F (10°C) • Dying if exposed to temperatures at or above 140°F (60°C)
Preparation of Yeast Breads • Punching Down— Second Rising • Once the dough has risen to double its size, it is punched down and left to rise a second time. • Shaping • After the bread has risen, it is ready for shaping.
Preparation of Yeast Breads • Proofingis the final rising that occurs in the pan or on a baking sheet, and it has an important effect on the quality of the finished bread. • Proof:To increase the volume of shaped dough through continued fermentation.
Preparation of Yeast Breads • Oven spring:The quick expansion of dough during the first ten minutes of baking, caused by expanding gases.
Preparation of Yeast Breads • Crumb:The cell structure appearing when a baked product is sliced. Evaluation is based on cell size (called “open” if medium to large, or “closed” if small), cell shape, and cell thickness (thin walls occur in fine crumb, while thick walls predominate in a coarse crumb).
The simplest yeast bread is made from: Flour Water Yeast This basic formula has evolved into more complicated varieties. Varieties that include loaf breads: White Whole-wheat Sourdough Malt bread Varieties of Yeast Breads
Fresh If it is not going to be consumed right away, it should be completely cooled before being wrapped and stored in a dry, cool place at room temperature. Unfortunately, staling starts as soon as the bread leaves the oven. Staling is best prevented by keeping the bread away from air. Several techniques include: Wrapping breads in plastic or paper bags Adding moisture retainers such as fat or sugar And/or freezing Storage of Yeast Breads
Refrigerated Bread should be refrigerated immediately in the warm temperatures and moist humidity of tropical regions. In less humid areas, refrigerating bread is not recommended because it speeds staling. Frozen Freezing is one of the best ways to maintain some of the texture and flavor of freshly baked bread. Most breads can be frozen for two or three months. The bread should be wrapped in heavy-duty aluminum foil and dated. Frozen bread should be removed from the freezer and thawed at room temperature in the wrapper. Storage of Yeast Breads