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Understanding Food. Chapter 20: Starches and Sauces. Starches as Thickeners. Starches contribute to the: Texture Taste Appearance . Cereals that are common sources of starch are: Wheat Rice Corn. Root starches include: Potatoes Arrowroot Cassava (tapioca)

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understanding food

Understanding Food

Chapter 20:

Starches and Sauces

starches as thickeners
Starches as Thickeners
  • Starches contribute to the:
  • Texture
  • Taste
  • Appearance
starches as thickeners1
Cereals that are common sources of starch are:

Wheat

Rice

Corn

Root starches include:

Potatoes

Arrowroot

Cassava (tapioca)

Other sources of complex carbohydrates are:

Dried beans

Peas

Sago palm

Starches as Thickeners
starch characteristics
Starch Characteristics
  • Starches have the capacity to go through the processes of:
    • Gelatinization:The increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency of starch granules when they are heated in a liquid.
    • Gel formation
    • Retrogradation
    • Dextrinization
starch characteristics1
Gelatinization is dependent on a number of factors, including:

Amount of water

Temperature

Timing

Stirring

…and the presence of:

Acid

Sugar

Fat

Protein

Starch Characteristics
starch characteristics2
Starch Characteristics
  • Gel formation-requirements
  • Gelatinization
  • Amylose
  • Cooling
starch characteristics3
Starch Characteristics
  • Retrogradation: The seepage of water out of an aging gel due to the contraction of the gel
  • Dextrinization:The breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter-tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat.
starch characteristics4
Starch Characteristics

Modified Starches

For food industry use

Crosslinked starch

Oxidized starch

Instant or pregelatinized starch

sauces
The major sauces used in food preparation are:

Thickened sauces, including:

Cheese sauce

White sauce

Some gravies

Unthickened sauces, including:

Other gravies

Hollandaise

Butter

Fruit

Barbecue

Tartar

Tomato sauces

Sauces
sauces thickeners
Sauces-thickeners
  • Roux:A thickener made by cooking equal parts of flour and fat.
  • There are three types of roux that serve as the foundation in making thickened sauces:
    • White
    • Blond
    • Brown
sauces thickeners1
Sauces-thickeners
  • Beurre manié (pronounced burr mahn-YAY):A thickener that is a soft paste made from equal parts of soft butter and flour blended together.
sauces thickeners2
Sauces-thickeners
  • Slurry:A thickener made by combining starch and a cool liquid.
no lumps
No lumps
  • Lump-free sauces
    • Fat and flour thoroughly mixed before adding liquid
    • Small amount of starch mixed with cold water before adding
    • Sugar
sauces1
Sauces
  • Gravy is made from the juices or drippings remaining in the pan after meat or poultry is cooked.
  • The drippings can be served thickened and with added seasonings or unthickened.
    • Au jus:Served with its own natural juices; a term usually used in reference to roasts.
sauces2
Sauces
  • Deglaze:Adding liquid to pan drippings and simmering/stirring to dissolve and loosen cooked-on particles sticking to the bottom of the pan.
  • Reduction:To simmer or boil a liquid until the volume is reduced through evaporation, leaving a thicker, more concentrated, flavorful mass.
storage of starches and sauces
The quality of dry starches deteriorates with improper storage.

Thickened sauces should also be prepared, served, and stored with caution.

Storage of Starches and Sauces