the evolution of the atmosphere 4 6 to 1 billion years ago l.
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The Evolution of the Atmosphere: 4.6 to 1 billion years ago. By Ms. Holl. Introduction. THREE PARTS: PART I: Volcanoes PART II: Single-Celled Plants Part III: Multi-Celled Plants. 4.6 billion years ago. Formation of Earth. 4.5 billion years ago. Accretion of Earth.

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction

THREE PARTS:

  • PART I: Volcanoes
  • PART II: Single-Celled Plants
  • Part III: Multi-Celled Plants
slide3

4.6 billion years ago

Formation of Earth

slide4

4.5 billion years ago

Accretion of Earth

Formation of the Moon

part i

Part I

Volcanoes

slide6

4.2 billion years ago

Early Atmosphere

No Life!

Volcanoes add carbon dioxide,

ammonia, water vapor and

methane to the atmosphere.

slide8

3.8 billion years ago

Earth Cools to Below 100 deg. C

Liquid Water Present

Early Oceans Form

part ii

Part II

Multi-Celled Plants

slide10

3.8 billion years ago

Earth Cools to Below 100 deg. C

First Bacteria

(Prokaryotic)

slide11

3.5 billion years ago

Photosynthesis Produces Oxygen!

Stromatolites

Carbon is locked up in sedimentary rocks.

slide12

Stromatolites

Formed by colonies cyanobacteria.

At least 3.5 billion years old.

Carbon is stored in stromatolites.

Fact:

Chloroplasts are actually cyanobacteria living in plant cells!

0 5 to 3 5 billion years ago
0.5 to 3.5 billion years ago

Stromatolites, colonies of cyanobacteria, are alive in Australia today.

Shark Bay, Australia

slide14

2.1 billion years ago

Photosynthesis Produces Oxygen!

Oxygen + Ammonia =

NITROGEN!

2 3 billion years ago little free oxygen
2-3 billion years ago: Little free oxygen

Commonly occur in sedimentary rocks 2-3 billion years old.

Alternating dark bands (containing FeO) and light bands of chert (silica and Fe2O3).

Occur from the deposition of alternately dissolved FeO & chert.

“Bands” occur from fluctuating densities of bacteria in an ocean. When bacteria blossoms, it creates oxygen and thus chert, which falls to the ocean floor. An oxygen depletion allows for FeO.

Banded iron formation

slide16

2 billion years ago

Beginning of Oxygenated Atmosphere

First Pollution Crisis!

Redbeds

Evidence of significant free oxygen

history of atmospheric oxygen
History of Atmospheric Oxygen

The presence of FeS2 and UO2 set upper limits because oxygen would have produced other oxides from U and Fe

From Lunine 1999 based on Kastings (1991)

red beds
Red beds

Occur earlier than 2 billion years ago.

Form when iron is weathered out of rock in the presence of oxygen.

slide19

1.7 billion years ago

Single-celled Eukaryotes Appear

Cells get a nucleus!

Still Present:

part iii

Part III

Multi-Celled Plants

slide21

1.2 billion years ago

Multi-celled Plants Appear

Photosynthesis adds more ___???___.

Decaying plants add more NITROGEN.

slide22

1.2 billion years ago

Multi-celled Plants Appear

Photosynthesis adds more OXYGEN.

Decaying plants add more NITROGEN.

slide23

0.65 billion years ago

to NOW

Humans did not appear until

5 million years ago!

Still Present:

summary
Summary
  • PART I: Volcanoes add carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane, and water vapour to the atmosphere.
  • PART II: Single-celled plants begin to photosynthesize which decreases the amount of carbon dioxide and increases the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. The oxygen reacts with ammonia from volcanoes to add nitrogen to the atmosphere.
  • PART III: Multi-celled plants evolved which adds even more oxygen to the atmosphere. More nitrogen is added as plants decay and are consumed by denitrifying bacteria.
review questions
Review Questions
  • Millions of years ago, the atmosphere contained the following gases:
    • Ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and water vapor.
  • Which of these gases has increased?
  • Which of these gases has decreased?
review questions27
Review Questions
  • Does photosynthesis increase or decrease the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere?
    • WHY?
  • Does photosynthesis increase or decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
    • WHY?
review questions28
Review Questions
  • How did volcanoes change the atmosphere?
  • How did single-celled plants change the atmosphere?
  • How do multi-celled plants change the atmosphere?
to think about
To think about…
  • How is the composition of the atmosphere changing today?
slide30

Picture Sources

http://rainbow.ldeo.columbia.edu/courses/v1001/7.html

http://www.geol.umd.edu/~kaufman/ppt/chapter3/sld019.htm

http://www.uta.edu/geology/geol1425earth_system/images/gaia_chapter_11/ArcheanLandscape.jpg

http://www.uta.edu/geology/geol1425earth_system/1425chap11.html

http://www.geol.umd.edu/~kaufman/ppt/chapter3/sld019.htm

http://www.exhibits.lsa.umich.edu/Exhibits/Anthropology/Diaramas/Nat.Am./Copper/Copper.html

http://www.novaspace.com/LTD/TUCC/PIX/Atmo.jpeg

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files/images/browse/p46022bc.gif

http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/earth/pictures/pinatubo/atmosphere%20after.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Air_composition_pie_chart.JPG

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/sanctuary/images/big/sanc0001.jpg

information sources
Information Sources
  • http://www.udayton.edu/~INSS/ThemeEvol/EvolTimeline.HSM.ppt
  • http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/undergrad/classes/spring2006/Griffith_102-13/LectureNotes/L36-Evolution-Life.ppt
  • http://thurmanscience.tripod.com
  • http://www.olduniverse.com/1,2.htm