Quotation and Citation Basics and Error Correction 2004/4/27 Ref. http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/research/documentation.html
Documenting Sources • Quotation & Internal/Parenthetical citation • Avoid wordiness; • Altering the original text. • Work(s) Cited • Citing Electronic Sources; • Citing Chinese Sources • Others
Quotation • Purposes: avoid plagiarism, increase credibility by giving evidence or support, for close analysis. • Kinds: paraphrase and direct quote (further divided into: separated and integrated) • Things to Consider: avoiding wordiness and over-quoting, punctuation; transition, using ellipses and brackets () for alterations of sources.
Quotation –increase credibility • Afrika Bambaataa, one of the founders of Hip Hop, defines it not in terms of skin colors, “ Hip Hop means the whole culture of the movement…how you act, walk, look, talk are all part of hip-hop culture. And the music is colorless. Hip Hop music is made from Black, brown, yellow, red, white, whatever music that gives you the grunt, that funk, that groove or that beat… It’s all part of Hip Hop.” (cont’d)
over-quotation & internal citation • Grandmaster Flash, . . . , also emphasizes the idea of emancipating all hip-hoppers from racial discrimination, “ For anybody to say ‘this is not hip hop or ‘that is not hip hop’ is wrong. That’s not the way the formula was laid down. It was for the people who were going to continue this to take anything…by all means necessary and string it along.” Both of the hip-hop forefathers are opposed to those who disdain the whites’ talents and dedications, which convinces us that the color is really not a matter, but only for the people “who were going to continue Hip Hop to take anything” deserve the name “real hip-hoppers”(both quote from DaveyD’s Hip Hop Corner).
Quotation –indent the long quote • Afrika Bambaataa, one of the founders of Hip Hop, defines it not in terms of skin colors: “Hip Hop means the whole culture of the movement…how you act, walk, look, talk are all part of hip-hop culture. And the music is colorless. Hip Hop music is made from Black, brown, yellow, red, white, whatever music that gives you the grunt, that funk, that groove or that beat… It’s all part of Hip Hop” (par 1).
Quotation –do not quote without your own interpretation • Grandmaster Flash, . . . , is also against setting the racial boundaries:the formula of Hip Hop, instead,“was [and should still be] for the people who were going to continue this to take anything” (Flash par 3) Both of the hip-hop forefathers, therefore, are opposed to those who disdain the whites’ talents and dedications. The name “real hip-hoppers,” in other words, go to those who continue its styles and spirit, blacks and whites and the other colors alike.
Quotation: Transition and Avoiding Wordiness • [. . . ] her attitude towards love can be regarded as extreme one. That is to say, Xia Long-nyu can sacrifice for Yang Guo. Jing Yong says,” On that day when Yang Guo threw away the panacea, Xia Long-nyu knew that Yang Guo is not willing to live alone if Xia Long-nyu is dead. Thus, she must kill herself first then Yang Guo would just try to find out another panacea.” (Romanization; 「那日楊過將半枚絕情丹拋入谷底，小龍女知他為了自己中毒難治，不愿獨生。當晚她思前想后，惟有自己先死，絕了他的念頭，才得有望解他體內情花之毒。」 From this point of view, Xia Long-nyu also can die for Yang Guo and this kind of attitude towards love is as the same as Yang Guo.In other words, Xia Long-nyu’s attitude about love is very extreme.
Quotation: Transition and Avoiding Wordiness --suggestions • [. . . ] her love is extreme since she is willing to sacrifice her life for Yang Guo. When both of them are poisoned and they have only one antidote, Yang Guo throws out the pill to want to die with her. Xiau-Long-Nyu, on the other hand, decides to die first because she knows that “only when she dies first will he give up the idea of death and kill the poison of love flower.” (「惟有自己先死，絕了他的念頭，才得有望解他體內情花之毒。」 pagination? My translation.) In other words, to save his life, she has to make him stop loving her. While their love for each other is equally strong, therefore, Xiau-Long-Nyu’s is selfless.
Quotation: Transition • According to a consumption behavior called “Image Congruence Hypothesis” (林財丁84 your translation?), customers would tend to choose products that fit their self-image; in other words, people choose products that can help them show “who they are”because “The main reason for consumers to buy this ‘symbolic meaning’ (the product) is to highlight ‘self image’” (林靈宏242). (rep)
Quotation: Transition • According to a consumption behaviortheory called “Image Congruence Hypothesis” (T. Lin 84 your translation?), customers would tend to choose products that fit their self-image; in other words, in buying a commodity, consumers care not only about its use values but also its “symbolic meanings [. . . in order] to highlight [their] ‘self image’” (L. Lin 242).
Use Internal Citation to avoid wordiness • Based on the dissertation, “A Historical Analysis of Coffee Consumption in Taiwan” written by Fan-ting, the development of coffee can be divided into three major periods: first is from 1930 to 1960, second is form 1960 to 1980 and the third is from 1980 to 1990. (41, 82, 122)
Errors fixed • Based on the dissertation written by Fang-ting,A Historical Analysis of Coffee Consumption in Taiwan,the development of coffee can be divided into three major periods: the first is from 1930 to 1960, the second is from 1960 to 1980 and the third is from 1980 to 1990 (41, 82, 122).
Internal Citation • The development of coffee in Taiwan can be divided into three major periods: first, from 1930 to 1960, second, from 1960 to 1980, and third, from 1980 to 1990 (Fan 41, 82, 122).
Internal Citation –avoid wordiness • In Wang’s paper she says,“one of surrealists, Max Ernst, a poet Paul Eluard and his wife once visited him(who?) and invited him to be one of “surrealist movement”…, but he refused them as well as he rejected other invitations from Fauvism, Cubism, and Structurism”(qtd. in 78).
Internal Citation –avoid wordiness • According to Wang,“one surrealist, Max Ernst, a poet Paul Eluard and his wife once visited [Chagall] and invited him to join the surrealist movement…, but he refused them, just as he rejected the other invitations from Fauvism, Cubism, and Structurism” (78). • Separated quotation • What does “qtd” mean?
Quotation e.g. altering the original texts. • First of all, “[t]he news [i]s subjective, spoken by a person,”strongly affirmed by Margaret Morse, a Professor of Film and Video at UC Santa Cruz. • First of all, the news, as Margaret Morse points out, “[i]s subjective, spoken by a person” (?). • Inevitably, news broadcast is “subjective, spoken by a person” (Morse ?) –integrated quotation.
Citing Electronic Sources –remember the date of access Walker, Janice & Todd Taylor. “Basic CGOS Style.”The Columbia Guide to Online Style. Columbia UP, 1998. Oct 26, 1999. <http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html>. Flannagan, Roy. "Reflections on Milton and Ariosto.“Early Modern Literary Studies 2.3 (1996): 12-45. 16 pars. 22 Feb. 1997 <http://unixg.ubc.ca:7001/0/e-sources/emls/02-3/flanmilt.html>.
Citing Chinese Sources –don’t be afraid of troubles! Tsai, Wen-fang (蔡文芳). “星巴克人的誕生-都市咖啡消費空間的解讀.”師大地理研究報告. 2000, 32: 147-169. (In Tong-Yong system) Cai, Wen-fang 蔡文芳. “Sing-ba-ke ren de dan-sheng (〈星巴克人的誕生-都市咖啡消費空間的解讀〉[The Birth of the Starbuck-ers: An Interpretation of the Spaces of Urban Coffee Consumption]).”Shih-da di-li za-jhih bau-gau (《師大地理研究報告》) 32(2000): 147-169.
Practice • 陳裕榮 [Chen Ju-rueng]“聯考加分加重學生壓力.” [Extra Credit, Extra Pressure to Aboriginal students] Chinatimes Foundation 16Aug. 1999. 5 Oct. 2003. <http://www.chinatimes.org.tw/news/1999/08/19990816_09.htm>.
Practice -- correction • Chen, Ju-Rong 陳裕榮. “Lien-kao jia-fen jia-zhung xue-sheng ya-li. 〈聯考加分加重學生壓力〉 [Extra Credit, Extra Pressure to Aboriginal students].”Chinatimes Foundation 16Aug. 1999. 5 Oct. 2003. <http://www.chinatimes.org.tw/news/1999/08/19990816_09.htm>.
Work Cited –Anything wrong? Flash, Grandmaster. “Grand Master Flash’s Definition of Hip Hop.”DaveyD’s Hip Hop Corner. 19 Dec. 2002. <http://www.daveyd.com/whatisflash.html>. Forman, Murray. The Hood Comes First. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2002. 23-42. Forman, Murray. The Hood Comes First. Middletown, IL: Wesleyan UP, 2002.