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Nanofabrication. H. Hau Wang Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division Symposium on Digital Fabrication Aug 12, 2005. Why going Nano? 1 nm = 10 -9 m. Chemistry – higher reactivity High surface area – Good for chemical and biochemical sensors

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H. Hau Wang

Argonne National Laboratory

Materials Science Division

Symposium on Digital Fabrication

Aug 12, 2005

why going nano 1 nm 10 9 m
Why going Nano? 1 nm = 10-9 m
  • Chemistry – higher reactivity

High surface area – Good for chemical and biochemical sensors

Higher sensitivity and faster response time

Good for heterogeneous catalysis

The larger the surface area, the higher the reactivity.

High level of reaction control

  • Material – better mechanical strength

UNCD Ultra-nano-crystalline diamond (ANL/CNM)

Ultra-thin and tough coating - prolong equipment life time

Carbon-nanotubes – Ultra-high mechanical strength

  • Physics – quantum confined phenomena anddesigned physical properties

Quantum dots,

Near field optics, plasmonics

High density magnetic storage – nanoclusters

Ideal spring nanomagnet - High magnetization and coercivity

nanofabrication current status
Nanofabrication – current status
  • Top-down Fabrication techniques

e-beam lithography

FIB – focused ion beam

DPN – dip pen nanolithography

Requires major facilities, control below 100 nm is a challenge, can not obtain high aspect ratio.

  • Bottom-up Synthesis

– The nano-scaled objects are limited to simple geometrical shape: sphere, cube, triangle, thin film, wire, tube, etc.

– No standard 3D morphological control

– Handling and Alignment are difficult

  • Lithographically assisted self-assembly – Combining top-down and bottom-up

1 x 1 mm2 AFM image of self-assembled PEG-PMMA thin film showing partially ordered


5 x 5 mm2 AFM image of as-prepared AAO membrane showing domain boundary

  • AAO/Al2O3/V2O5 nanostructure has been prepared for heterogeneous catalysis studies.
  • Pd nanotubes showed very good hydrogen sensing capability.

Before ALD

Cross-Section of

Coated AAO

200 nm Bi NT

After ALD

  • Au, Co, Co/Pt


– Magnetic storage

(X. M. Lin et al.)


Dynamics of Monolayer Nanocrystal Self-assembling Process in Liquid Film

To understand the dynamics of highly ordered nanocrystal monolayer through evaporation of a nanocrystal colloidal droplet.

(J. Phys. Chem. B 2001, 105, 3353)

Grazing Incidence Small Angle

X-ray Scattering (GISAXS)

  • Kinetic effects can play an important role in nanocrystal self-assembly.
  • Fast initial evaporation rate can induce nanocrystals accumulate at the liquid-air interface and undergo a 3D to 2D structural transition to form highly ordered nanocrystal monolayer.

Xiao-Min Lin Suresh Narayanan, Jin Wang

MSD/CHM Advanced Photon Source


FM1 (Co)



NM (Cu)




FM2 (Co)



50 nm Au

  • Various metallic (Au, Ag, Cu, etc.), superconductive (Pb), ferromagnetic (Co, Ni, etc.) nanowires have been made with anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates.
  • Multi-segmented (Co/Cu), (Au/Ni – Mirkin, Science 2005) nanowires have been prepared with pulsed electro-deposition.
  • Multi-segmented SiNi/Si/SiNi nanowires have been

fabricated into integrated nanowire circuits. (Lieber,

Nature 2005)

Materials Science Division, MSD

Center for Nanoscale Materials, CNM

Co 20 nm/Cu 20 nm