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Integrating Task-based Instruction into Foreign Language Curriculum: A Working Model for Syllabus Design and Teacher Development. Hong Gang Jin Hamilton College. I. Pedagogical principles of task-based language teaching (TBLT). 10 methodological principles （ MPs) ( Doughty and Long, 2003)
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Integrating Task-based Instruction into Foreign Language Curriculum:A Working Model for Syllabus Design and Teacher Development Hong Gang Jin Hamilton College
I. Pedagogical principles of task-based language teaching (TBLT) • 10 methodological principles（MPs) ( Doughty and Long, 2003) • Task as a basic unit of analysis • Learning by doing • Elaborated input • Rich input • Chunk learning • Focus on form • Negative feedback • Respect learner syllabuses • Cooperative and collaborative learning • Individualized instruction
8 pedagogical principles for task-based language teaching ( Nunan, 2004) • Scaffolding • Task dependency • Recycling • Active learning • Integration of form and function • Reproduction to creation • Learning strategies • Reflection
Principles, procedures, and TBLT • MPs are universal • PPs are local • We need to incorporate MPs into a TBLT curriculum through a series of pedagogical procedures
II. Challenges of translating methodological principles into effective curricular procedures • Challenge 1: how to use MPs and PPs to design a coherent curriculum which enables learners to engage in active, experiential, collaborative, and individualized learning • Challenge 2: how to use task as a curricular planning tool to design a coherent syllabus • Challenge 3: how to design and sequence tasks/learning activities with varied task complexity, difficulty, and conditions
Challenge 4: how to use PPs to form task chains to achieve maximum task continuity and instructional effects • Challenge 5: how to integrate form with function in task-based curriculum
III. A working TBLT curricular model • Associated Colleges in China (ACC): an overseas immersion program in China • Program needs analysis and goals • Pedagogical principles and procedures identified for the program • Instructional cycle • Syllabus design and key instructional activities • Task sequencing • Instructional techniques • Teacher development
1. A 6-stage TBLT instructional cycle 2 1 • This instructional cycle manifests the 9 MPs & PPs identified for the program • The cycle is realized through procedural tasks • based on local needs 3 5 4
2. Using procedural tasks as a syllabus sequencing tool • PTs are the basic instructional units for sequencing tasks, and for achieving instructional objectives In- class Before class After class Process-based tasks: sensitive to task complexity, difficulty, and conditions
3. China's Public Advertising Culture: A sample syllabus of task design and sequencing Less complex More complex Less difficulty Less authentic More difficulty More authentic Optional/obligatory
4. Activation Task Chain Task types: core and peripheral Task focus: performance, hands-on, problem-solving Task complexity: input, code, context, familiarity Task conditions: task demands, discourse mode Task transfer: skill, topic, and context Task dependency: task chains
中华人民共和国万岁 请勿随地吐痰 好好学习，天天向上 学习雷锋 为人民服务 世界人民大团结万岁 讲文明，树新风 说话要说普通话，写字要写规范字 Activation Task 1B: The follow PMS are often seen on the streets in China. Categorize them according to their types 商业性 commercial 政治性 Political 道德性 moral
Activation Task 2: Listen and match PMs • 中华人民共和国万岁 • 学习雷锋 • 讲文明，树新风 • 说话要说普通话，写字要写规范字 • Long Live the mother land • Strengthen the Development of Socialist Spiritual Civilization • Study the Spirit of Comrade Lei Feng, the Revolutionary Spirit ofCommunism and theProletariat • Popularize the National Language: Putonghua 2 1 3 4
在哪儿可以看到标语？ 在——到处都能V—— 多数有几种？都和什么有关？ 政治性标语： 有的：教——怎么—— 有的：教——怎么—— 最常见的是—— 带着——（一定）的意义 商业性广告 有的告诉你—— 像——，—— 社会性标语 大多带着——的意义 3.和以前比，中国的标语有什么变化？ 大大的减少/增加 4. 标语和广告的基本不同 基本不同： 标语：——有…的意味 广告：——只提供——（信息）为了推销—— 5. 去校外校外找三个标语的分别属于：(hands-on) 政治性： 商业性： 社会性： Activation Task 3: Fill in the information and answer questions according to the reading text
Subtopic One: 在哪儿可以看到标语？ 在…到处都能V …（看到/听到/了解到） 比方说， …（在…附近； Subtopic Two: 中国的标语有几种？都和什么有关？ A. Supporting details: 政治性标语： Patterns & routines: 有的：教…怎么… （做人/做事/避免问题）， Patterns & routines: 比方说： …意思是… Patterns & routines:最常见的是… Patterns & routines…带着… （一定/政治/道德/社会/广告）的意义 B. Supporting details: 商业性广告 有的告诉你…（信息/意义/思想/题目） 像… ， …等等 C. Supporting details: 社会/道德性标语 3.Subtopic Three: 和以前比，中国的标语有什么变化？ …大大的减少/增加 4.Subtopic Four: 标语和广告的基本不同 基本不同： 标语： …有…的意味 广告： …只提供… （信息） 为了推销… 不同标语的例子： 政治性： 商业性： 社会性： Subtopic Five: 学标语的作用 进一步了解… …值得+V … （研究/了解/推荐） Scaffolding Task 2: A thematic outline 中国的标语 (Main topic)
Two students interview the teacher with the following questions: 您在哪儿可以常看到公益广告标语？ 地点 你认为中国有几种广告标语？都和什么有关？ 政治性标语： 带着什么意味 商业性广告 推销什么？ 只提供什么？ 社会性标语 教人做什么 3.和以前比，您觉得中国的标语有什么变化？ 您认为什么标语大大减少了？ 什么大大增加了？ 4. 您认为这些标语和广告的基本不同在哪里？ 基本不同： 标语： 广告： 不同标语的例子： 政治性：这有什么意义 商业性： 社会性： Core Task 3: Mock interview
Interview your students about 5 Oscar nominated films in the US: 这些美国电影都算是什么类型的电影？ 社会： 历史： 娱乐： 暴力： 其他 你认为美国电影一般来说有几种类型？对美国社会文化有什么作用/影响？ 3.和以前比，您觉得美国的奥斯卡电影有什么变化？ 什么电影大大减少了？ 什么电影大大增加了？ 4. 你认为美国电影和中国电影的基本不同在哪里？ 基本不同： 1 2 对社会的影响： 政治 商业 社会 Individualized Task 2B: interviews
Task 2B: Interviews about 2006 Oscar nominated films in the US • The Best Picture category was an interesting mix of diverse films -- in two of the films, English was a second language: • Babel: centered around cascading tragedies stemming from the accidental shooting of an American wife by a Moroccan sheepherder • The Queen: riveting "inside story" monarchy chronicle told about the week the Royal Family became reviled by the British public due to their silence following the death of "the People's Princess" Lady Diana in 1997, and how newly-elected Prime Minister Tony Blair (Michael Sheen) cajoled Queen Elizabeth II to acquiesce to the public's demands • The Departed, about a pair of Irish Bostonians, one an undercover cop spying on the local organized crime family, the other a police plant hired by the same family; • Letters From Iwo Jima: emotional American-produced foreign language film about the Japanese perspective during the bloody Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II If Letters From Iwo Jima is named Best Picture, it would be the first foreign-language film to win in that category] • Little Miss Sunshine: a quirky light comedy about the adventures of an oddball, dysfunctional New Mexico family driving cross-country in a broken-down Volkswagen van for their 7 year-old daughter Olive's Little Miss Sunshine beauty pageant in Redondo Beach, California
IV. Future needs and recommendations • Systematic research on PTs (functions, sequence, and its effect on SLA) • Develop clearly defined taxonomy for TBLT: pedagogical tasks, procedural tasks, simulation tasks, replication tasks, and real world tasks, etc • A system to evaluate task transfer, continuity, and chain sequence • Accurate and effective measures for task complexity, difficulty, condition, and effect at different levels • Timing and techniques for pedagogical intervention • A generic and language-specific task bank organized in terms of PTs to be shared by language instructors
V. Roles and functions of procedural tasks • Procedural tasks function as • An important linkage between MPs, PPs, and performance tasks • A curricular planning tool and cyclical sequencing unit • An effect mechanism to string tasks into purposeful task chains with varied degree of complexity, difficulty, and conditions • An easy and flexible tool with optional and obligatory procedures to guide the lesson plan according to learners