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Green Buildings. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Special Solicitation Workshop San Francisco Mar-23-04 Olof Hansen U.S. EPA Region 9 Waste Management Division Strategic Planning and Partnership Office.

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green buildings

Green Buildings

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

Special Solicitation Workshop

San Francisco Mar-23-04

Olof Hansen

U.S. EPA Region 9

Waste Management Division

Strategic Planning and Partnership Office

buildings in the united states have a significant impact on the environment and account for
Buildings in the United States have a significant impact on the environment and account for:
  • Energy
    • 37 % of primary energy use
    • 68 % of all electricity use
  • Materials
    • 60 % of non-food/fuel raw materials use
  • Waste
    • 40 % of non-industrial solid waste from construction and demolition debris per year
  • Water
    • 36 billion gallons of water per day
    • 20 % loss of potable water in many urban systems due to leakage
  • Air Quality
    • 35 % of CO2, 49 % of SO2, 25 % of NOx, and 10 % of PM emissions

SBIR USEPA Region 9

green buildings and epa
Green Buildings and EPA
  • Sustainable building is a priority under EPA's Resource Conservation Challenge
  • EPA is an active member of the U.S. Green Building Council
  • Federal statutes require green building practices
  • Agency issued Environmental Quality Guidance for Green, High Performance and Sustainable Buildings
  • Buildings have tremendous human health and environmental impacts

SBIR USEPA Region 9

environmental impacts of buildings
Environmental Impacts of Buildings
  • Indoor Air/Human Health
    • Americans spend 90% of their time indoors
    • On average, indoor air is 2-10 more contaminated that outdoor air
    • 20% of workers suffer from indoor air illnesses resulting in 11,400 premature deaths/year
    • Health and productivity losses associated w/indoor air quality are estimated to cost tens of billions of $ annually

SBIR USEPA Region 9

environmental impacts of buildings5
Environmental Impacts of Buildings
  • Air/Energy Impacts
    • Buildings consume one third of all energy
    • Consume 2/3 of all electricity in the U.S.
    • Buildings contribute
      • 25% of all greenhouse gas emissions,
      • 49% of sulfur dioxide emissions, and
      • 10% of particulate matter emissions

SBIR USEPA Region 9

environmental impacts of buildings6
Environmental Impacts of Buildings
  • Waste Impacts
    • Worldwide construction activities consume 3 billion tons of raw materials each year
    • Nearly 40% - 136 million tons/year - of waste going to landfills in the US is building construction and demolition debris
    • More than 30% of the mercury in solid waste is from building switches, thermostats, florescent tubes, and paints

SBIR USEPA Region 9

waste from building construction and demolition debris
Waste from Building Construction and Demolition Debris

136 M Tons =

1.36 M Freight Cars =

15,000 Miles

SBIR USEPA Region 9

federal government leading by example
Federal Government Leading by Example
  • Owns 500,000 buildings = 3.1 billion sq. feet of floor space
  • Largest energy user in the country
    • 2% of building-related greenhouse gases in US
    • $3.4 billion/year
    • 23% reduction in energy (‘85-’01)
    • 100 buildings are Energy Star labeled
    • 10.5 million metric tons of carbon equivalent/year

SBIR USEPA Region 9

federal green building materials requirements
Building insulation

Carpet & padding

Cement & concrete containing fly ash/slag

Latex paint

Floor tiles

Flowable fill

Laminated paperboard

Patio blocks

Railroad grade crossing surfaces

Restroom dividers

Structural fiberboard

Compost & mulch

Landscaping timbers

Park benches & picnic tables

Playground equipment & surfaces

Federal Green Building Materials Requirements

SBIR USEPA Region 9

federal law rcra 6002 and executive order 13101
Federal Law: RCRA 6002 and Executive Order 13101
  • Requires the purchase of recycled materials - Federally funded projects
  • Uses Federal purchasing power to promote recycling
  • EPA and State inspectors enforce implementation of RCRA 6002
  • TOOLS:
    • Screened vendor lists
    • Specifications

SBIR USEPA Region 9

why recycled products
Why Recycled Products?
  • Aluminum
    • 95% less air pollution
    • 97% less water pollution
    • One can = energy savings of ½ a can of gasoline
  • Paper
    • 74% less air pollution
    • 35% less water pollution
    • One ton = 17 trees & 7,000 gallons water
  • Green House Gases = 25 million cars/year

SBIR USEPA Region 9

additional federal focus areas
Additional Federal Focus Areas
  • Energy Star
  • Environmentally Preferable Purchasing
    • Green Janitorial Products
    • Biobased Products (wheatboard, soy adhesives, plastics)
  • Construction & Demolition Debris
    • Database of C&D Recyclers
  • Green Leasing
  • Waste Wise
  • GreenScapes

SBIR USEPA Region 9

the challenge
The Challenge

SBIR USEPA Region 9

the challenge15
The Challenge
  • Increase the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy, water, and materials, and
  • Reduce building impacts on human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal
  • Assess the complete building life cycle

SBIR USEPA Region 9

green building requires an integrated design approach
Green Building requires anintegrated design approach:
  • Focusing on only one component of a building can have unintended environmental, social, or economic consequences
  • Examples:
    • Poorly designed energy efficient building envelopes can result in poor indoor environmental quality
    • Some recycled content latex paint could have higher volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions than other environmentally preferable paints

SBIR USEPA Region 9

example of green building 1
Example of Green Building (1)
  • New GSA Federal Building in San Francisco
    • windows that open,
    • shared spaces between offices,
    • lots of natural light,
    • reduce energy costs by 45 percent, and
    • is expected to save $500,000 per year in taxpayer dollars.

SBIR USEPA Region 9

example of green building 2 low tech
Example of Green Building (2) - Low Tech
  • Earthship
    • 4500 used tires
    • Round adobe bricks
  • Solar Panels
  • Sinks
    • Grease & particle filter
    • Garden grey water
  • Freshwater collection
    • Roof/rain > 4 cisterns
    • 40,000 gallons

Garden “gray water”

SBIR USEPA Region 9

sbir r d for green buildings
SBIR R&D for Green Buildings
  • Impacts of buildings are so tremendous
  • Numerous research opportunities
    • on buildings’ environmental effects and interactions and
    • on technologies and techniques to reduce these impacts
  • We encourage new ideas/research

SBIR USEPA Region 9

research needs
Research Needs
  • Water conservation and reuse,
  • Recharging of groundwater,
  • Construction runoff control,
  • Use of green building products,
  • Indoor environmental quality (e.g., day-lighting, ventilation, low emitting materials)
  • Design products to consider toxicity emphasizing natural, low-emitting materials
  • Effect on cost savings, worker productivity, and worker health
  • Comparable information on the environmental impacts of building products
    • life cycle assessment (LCA) and
    • building product life cycle inventories (LCI) tools and protocols

SBIR USEPA Region 9

some green building sbir topics
Design techniques or equipment to promote building renovation/deconstruction instead of demolition

Design, construction practices or equipment to improve indoor air quality

Building materials development to reduce risks from persistent, bio-accumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals

Recycled content building materials development using local feedstock

Develop natural flame retardancy for building materials

Rapidly renewable/bio-based building materials development using local feedstock

Environmentally preferable building systems or materials with unique application to arid Southwest

Measurement/metering equipment for green building systems

Moisture control systems/materials/detection equipment for condensation, water intrusion, etc.

Some Green Building SBIR Topics

SBIR USEPA Region 9

epa resources
EPA Resources
  • Websites
    • Green Buildings:
      • www.epa.gov/greenbuildings
    • Recycled Products
      • www.epa.gov/cpg
    • Environmentally Preferable Purchasing
      • www.epa.gov/oppt/epp
  • Green Building Contact in Region 9: Timonie Hood
    • (415) 972-3282
    • hood.timonie@epa.gov

SBIR USEPA Region 9