Emotions: A brief overview • Traditionally • Emotions contrast with reason • Reason is logical • Emotion causes us to deviate from rationality • Is this true?
Emotions • Emotions are connected to motivation • We cannot access the motivational system • Emotions provide us with a conscious view • Approach and Avoidance motivations • Approach: Desirable end states • Avoidance: Undesirable end states • Physiologically separate
Dimensions of emotion • Valence: Positive or negative • Motivation: Approach or avoidance • Approach emotions • Positive: Happiness • Negative: Sadness • Avoidance emotions • Positive: Relief • Negative: Anxiety/Fear
Types of emotion • Anticipatory emotions • Desire • Dread • Outcome emotions • Happiness, sadness, anxiety, regret, relief
Emotion drives evaluation • Factors that affect emotions influence choices • Often this is a good thing • Risk is perceived as anxiety • This may be why probabilities in lotteries don’t affect people much. • People prefer to delay resolution of low-probability lotteries • There is not that much anxiety • Lots of anticipation • Desire often correlates with the goodness of a choice
Choice and (mis)attribution • We experience emotions • We must explain where they come from • Often it is obvious • Sometimes it is not • Dutton & Aron and the bridge • Strack & Clore and life satisfaction • Misattribution effects in choice • Name-letter effects • Mere exposure effects
Attitudes and Behavior • Attitude-behavior (in)consistency • Goodness of emotion as a predictor • How much is current situation like the choice situation? • People have difficulty judging future preferences • What ice cream will you want tomorrow?