Travel • Elites began to travel for pleasure in greater numbers than ever before. • The “grand tour” of Europe became a must for the cultured. • People wished to see the ruins of antiquity and the new urban centers throughout Europe. • Coffee houses offered a meeting place for people to discuss philosophy and the issues of the day.
The Salons • Groups organized by women, such as Madame de Pompadour, of wealthy families. • Gave a forum to which philosophes could share their ideas. • Allowed women a place were they could be taken seriously. • Often, the etiquette of the gatherings made things ‘artificial.’
Publishing and Reading • Publishing and bookselling became a major commercial enterprise in the 18th century. • Newspapers and journals became a part of the daily life of most urban Europeans. • Newspapers began to write more about political issues, particularly in England and during the Revolution in France. • There was also a large market for “bad books” describing scandals and sex.
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Literature • The Novel • Novel had its origins in mid 18th century England with the rising demand for fiction from the middle class. • Pioneers included Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding. • A wide range of topics were covered in novels; they shadowed the plays of the time in dealing with family and social issues of the day
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Poetry • For 140 years from 1660 to 1800 neoclassical poetry reigned England. • Also known as Augustan poetry, neoclassical used strictly, structurally balanced verses, witty and elegant language with restrained and controlled emotion, the idea being to create a more refined verse. • Amongst the most famous neoclassical poets were John Dryden and Alexander Pope.
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism Poetry • However, in 1798 poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge published an anthology Lyrical Ballads, opening the Romantic period of poetry. • Romantic poetry was the complete opposite of Neoclassical. Wordsworth accurately described romantic poetry as the "spontaneous overflow of feelings". Romantic poetry used simple language to create the impression that the poet were speaking out loud and usually spoke about common, everyday aspects of life and nature. • Later famous romantic poets of the time were William Blake, Lord Byron, John Keats and Percy Bysshe Shelley.
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Poetry • Johann von Goethe (1749-1832) • Prolific German writer and poet who’s work encompassed Neoclassical and Romantic elements. • He inspired the literary movement known as Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress), emphasizing strong emotion experience. • His great works include The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) and Faust (1801 and 1831)
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Music • Symphony • Began moving from “light” neoclassical works to more powerful and extended works. • Franz Joseph Hayden • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • Powerful extended symphonies that reflected the emotion of the Romantic movement. • Ludwig von Beethoven
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Visual Arts • NeoclassicalArt is a severe and unemotional form of art harkening back to the grandeur of ancient Greece and Rome. Its rigidity was a reaction to the overdone Rococo style and the emotional charged Baroque style. The rise of Neoclassical Art was part of a general revival of interest in classical thought, which was of major importance in the Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions.
Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825) • The most famous painter in Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s. He breathed new life into history painting with his rigorously constructed compositions • David could be petty, graceless, and abrasive. Intensely competitive, he was confident and even boastful of his talent.
The Arts:Neoclassicism to Romanticism • Romanticism might best be described as anticlassicism. A reaction against Neoclassicism, it is a deeply-felt style which is individualistic, exotic, beautiful and emotionally wrought. • Although Romanticism and Neoclassicism were philosophically opposed, they were the dominant European styles for generations, and many artists were affected to a lesser or greater degree by both. Artists might work in both styles at different times or even combine elements, creating an intellectually Romantic work using a Neoclassical visual style, for example.