Management Science – 2 Introduction to Quality Total Quality Management
Quality Management • What does the term quality mean? • Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. • degree of excellence of a thing. • Totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs
Evolution of Quality Management • Fredrick Taylor (Scientific Management) • 1924 - Statistical process control charts • 1930 - Tables for acceptance sampling • 1940’s - Statistical sampling techniques • 1950’s - Quality assurance/TQC (DEMING) • 1960’s - Zero defects • 1970’s - Quality assurance in services
Quality Assurance vs. Strategic Approach • Quality Assurance • Emphasis on finding and correcting defects before reaching market • Strategic Approach • Proactive, focusing on preventing mistakes from occurring • Greater emphasis on customer satisfaction
Dimensions of Quality • Performance • basic operating characteristics of a product; how well a car is handled. • Features • “extra” items added to basic features, such as a stereo CD or a leather interior in a car • Reliability • probability that a product will operate properly within an expected time frame; that is, a TV will work without repair for about seven years
Dimensions of Quality (Cont’d) • Conformance • degree to which a product meets pre–established standards • Durability • how long product lasts before replacement • Serviceability • ease of getting repairs, speed of repairs, courtesy and competence of repair person
Dimensions of Quality (Cont’d) • Aesthetics • how a product looks, feels, sounds, smells, or tastes • Safety • assurance that customer will not suffer injury or harm from a product; an especially important consideration for automobiles • Perceptions • subjective perceptions based on brand name, advertising, and the like
Dimensions of Quality: Service • Time and Timeliness • How long must a customer wait for service, and is it completed on time? • Is an overnight package delivered overnight? • Completeness: • Is everything customer asked for provided? • Is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered?
Dimensions of Quality: Service • Courtesy: • How are customers treated by employees? • Are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? • Consistency • Is the same level of service provided to each customer each time? • Is your newspaper delivered on time every morning?
Dimensions of Quality: Service • Accessibility and convenience • How easy is it to obtain service? • Does a service representative answer you calls quickly? • Accuracy • Is the service performed right every time? • Is your bank or credit card statement correct every month?
Dimensions of Quality: Service • Responsiveness • How well does the company react to unusual situations? • How well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customer’s questions?
Challenges with Service Quality • Customer expectations often change • Different customers have different expectations • Each customer contact is a “moment of truth” • Customer participation can affect perception of quality • Fail-staffing must be designed into the system
Quality Gurus • Walter Shewart • In 1920s, developed control charts • Introduced the term “quality assurance” • W. Edwards Deming • Developed courses during World War II to teach statistical quality-control techniques to engineers and executives of companies that were military suppliers • After the war, began teaching statistical quality control to Japanese companies • Joseph M. Juran • Followed Deming to Japan in 1954 • Focused on strategic quality planning
Quality Gurus (cont.) • Armand V. Feigenbaum • In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality control and continuous quality improvement • Philip Crosby • In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far outweigh the cost of preventing poor quality • In 1984, defined absolutes of quality management—conformance to requirements, prevention, and “zero defects” • Kaoru Ishikawa • Promoted use of quality circles • Developed “fishbone” diagram • Emphasized importance of internal customer
Determinants of Quality (cont’d) • Quality of design • Intension of designers to include or exclude features in a product or service: Different car models with different features • size • Appearance • Roominess • Fuel economy • Comfort • Material used
Determinants of Quality (cont’d) • Quality of Conformance • Making sure a product or service is produced according to design: • if new tires do not conform to specifications, they wobble • if a hotel room is not clean when a guest checks in, the hotel is not functioning according to specifications of its design
The Consequences of Poor Quality • Loss of business • Liability • Productivity • Costs
Benefits of Good Quality • Organizations will benefit in different way: • Enhance reputation • Increase market share • Greater customer loyalty • Lower liability Cost • Fewer complains • Lower production cost • Higher profits
Responsibility for Quality • Top management • Design • Procurement • Production/operations • Quality assurance • Packaging and shipping • Marketing and sales • Customer service
Costs of Quality • Failure Costs - costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services. • Internal Failure Costs • Costs incurred to fix problems that are detected during the production. • Defective materials • Incorrect machine setting • Faulty equipment • Carelessness • Wrong procedure
Costs of Quality • External Failure Costs • All costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer. • Warranty work • Handling of complains • Replacement • Liability
Costs of Quality (continued) • Appraisal Costs • Costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects • Cost of inspector • Testing • Test equipment • Labs • Field testing
Costs of Quality (continued) • Prevention Costs • Cost of preventing defects form occurring • Planning and adminstration • Working with vendors • Training • Quality control procedures
Total Quality Management A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. • Continuous Improvement • Involvement of Everyone • Customer Satisfaction
Elements of TQM • Continual improvement (never ending) • Competitive benchmarking • Employee empowerment • Team approach • Decisions based on facts • Knowledge of tools • Supplier quality • Champion • Quality at the source • Suppliers
Quality at the Source The philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work.
Basic Quality Tools • Flowcharts • Check sheets • Histograms • Pareto Charts • Scatter diagrams • Control charts • Cause-and-effect diagrams • Run charts
Quality Tools Flow Chart : displays the steps in a process showing order and relationships helps in understanding of that process and identifies potential weaknesses i.e. poor performance Cause and Effect Also know as fishbone or Ishikawa
Check Sheet COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 2002 REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob TV SET MODEL 1013 Integrated Circuits |||| Capacitors |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || Resistors || Transformers |||| Commands CRT |
Cause-and-Effect Diagram Measurement Human Machines Faulty testing equipment Out of adjustment Poor supervision Tooling problems Incorrect specifications Lack of concentration Improper methods Old / worn Inadequate training Quality Problem Inaccurate temperature control Defective from vendor Poor process design Ineffective quality management Not to specifications Dust and Dirt Deficiencies in product design Material- handling problems Materials Process Environment Figure 9.12
Methods for Generating Ideas • Brainstorming • Quality circles • Interviewing • Benchmarking