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Total Quality Management - TQM. The quality journey continues…….. Author: Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones. Session Plan. Introduction to concepts of TQM Standards and TQM TQM Reasons for failure Measurement of Quality. Total Quality Management.

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total quality management tqm

Total Quality Management - TQM

The quality journey continues……..


Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones

session plan
Session Plan
  • Introduction to concepts of TQM
  • Standards and TQM
  • TQM Reasons for failure
  • Measurement of Quality
total quality management
Total Quality Management
  • TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the organization.
  • TQM can be viewed as anextension of the traditional approach to quality.
  • TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision making.
  • Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every member of staff within an organization to influence quality.
  • All staff are empowered.

Total Quality Management

Doing things right…..

….FIRST time.

Internetix (2005)

british standards on tqm
British Standards on TQM

BS 7850-1:1992

  • Total quality management. Guide to management principles.

BS 7850-2:1994,

ISO 9004-4:1993

  • Total quality management. Guidelines for quality improvement.
elements of tqm
Elements of TQM
  • Leadership
    • Top management vision, planning and support.
  • Employee involvement
    • All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work.
  • Product/Process Excellence
    • Involves the process for continuous improvement.
elements of tqm7
Elements of TQM
  • Continuous Improvement
    • A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality.
  • Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use”
    • Design quality
      • Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace.
    • Conformance quality
      • The degree to which a product meets its design specifications.
a fundamental concept of tqm from bs 7850 a process
A fundamental concept of TQM from BS 7850 - a ‘Process’
  • “A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs.” (ISO 8402).
  • “Any activity that accepts inputs, adds values to these inputs for customers, and produces outputs for these customers. The customers may be either internal or external to the organization.” (BS 7850)
the simple process






"The Simple Process"

(Source: BS 7850: 1992, “Total Quality Management”)

changing role of the process owner

Process 1

Input from


As customer

Process owner

Process 1



As supplier

As customer

Process owner

Output to


As supplier

Changing Role of the Process Owner

(Source: BS 7850: 1992, “Total Quality Management”)


TQM & organizational Cultural Change

Traditional Approach

Lack of communication

Control of staff

Inspection & fire fighting

Internal focus on rule

Stability seeking

Adversarial relations

Allocating blame


Open communications



External focus on customer

Continuous improvement

Co-operative relations

Solving problems at their roots




Perceived quality is poor

Perceived quality is good

Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of the product or service

Customers’ expectations for the product or service

Customers’ perceptions of the product or service

Customers’ expectations of the product or service

Customers’ perceptions of the product or service

Customers’ perceptions of the product or service

Customers’ expectations for the product or service

Expectations > perceptions

Expectations = perceptions

Expectations < perceptions

Source: Slack et al. 2004

additional views of quality in services
Additional views of Quality in Services
  • Technical Quality versus Functional Quality
    • Technical quality — the core element of the good or service.
    • Functional quality — customer perception of how the good functions or the service is delivered.
  • Expectations and Perceptions
    • Customers’ prior expectations (generalized and specific service experiences) and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service.
      • Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation)

Image of product or service

Word of mouth communications



Customer’s perceptions concerning the product or service

Customer’s expectations concerning a product or service

Gap 4

Customer’s own specification of quality

The actual product or service

Gap 1

organization’s specification of quality

Management’s concept of the product or service

Gap 3

Gap 2

A “Gap” model of Quality

Source: Parasuraman, Zeithman and Berry. 1985

continuous improvement
Continuous Improvement
  • Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs.
  • Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement.
implementing tqm
Implementing TQM
  • Successful Implementation of TQM
    • Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day operations.
  • Causes of TQM Implementation Failures
    • Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies.
    • Obsolete, outdated organizational cultures.
obstacles to implementing tqm
Obstacles to Implementing TQM
  • Lack of a company-wide definition of quality.
  • Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change.
  • Lack of a customer focus.
  • Poor inter-organizational communication.
  • Lack of real employee empowerment.
  • Lack of employee trust in senior management.
  • View of the quality program as a quick fix.
  • Drive for short-term financial results.
  • Politics and turf issues.
some criticisms of tqm
Some criticisms of TQM
  • Blind pursuit of TQM programs
  • Programs may not be linked to strategies
  • Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance
  • Failure to carefully plan a program
pdca cycle repeated to create continuous improvement
PDCA Cycle repeated to createcontinuous improvement









recognizing and rewarding quality
Recognizing and rewarding Quality
  • Promotion of high quality goods and services
    • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United States)
    • Deming Prize (Japan)
    • European Quality Award (European Union)
    • ISO9000 certification
the integrated framework of the baldrige award criteria
The integrated framework of the Baldrige Award criteria

Source: 2004 Criteria for Performance Excellence, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Baldrige National Quality Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (


Continual improvement of the quality management system


(and other




(and other





Measurement, analysis and improvement











Value adding activity

information flow

Source: BS EN ISO 9001:2000

quality award common elements
Quality Award common elements
  • All take holistic approach
  • Customers/people
  • Measurable characteristics
  • Visible
  • Basis taken from TQM
  • TQM – a way of working
  • Involves everyone
  • High prominence on ‘customer’
  • Awards based upon TQM