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Scientific Principles: lecture 2 1. How did scientists study nature in the past?  Define bias and naturalist. Naturalist observe and record nature as they see it. Biased, did not use the scientific method. Bias = subject, human interpretation

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1 how did scientists study nature in the past define bias and naturalist
1. How did scientists study nature in the past?  Define bias and naturalist.
  • Naturalist observe and record nature as they see it. Biased, did not use the scientific method.
  • Bias = subject, human interpretation
2 compare laboratory and field scientists how is their work similar how is it different
2.  Compare laboratory and field scientists.  How is their work similar?  How isit different?
  • Naturalist and lab scientists use observation
  • Field scientists have difficulty controlling variables – temp, light, animal location all change constantly.
  • Lab scientists easier to control environment.
  • Both use scientific method
3 what is the scientific method
3. What is the scientific method
  • Science - A process used to solve problems or develop an understanding of nature that involves testing possible answers.
  • Scientific Method - Method of gaining information about the world by forming possible solutions to questions, followed by rigorous testing to determine if the proposed solutions are valid.
4 what is the difference between objective and subjective
4.  What is the difference between objective and subjective?
  • Objective = unbiased, multiple test graded by machine example: no human input
  • Subject = human interpretation, bias, human error likely
  • Scientific method tries to be objective using controls and a standard method.
5 steps of scientific method
5. Steps of scientific method
  • Observation - Occurs when we use our senses, or extension thereof, to record an event.
  • Background – literature review, find out what other scientists have discovered.
5 steps of scientific method7
5. Steps of Scientific Method
  • Hypothesis - A testable statement that provides a possible answer to a question, or an explanation for an observation.
    • A good hypothesis must be logical, account for all relevant information, allow prediction of related future events, and be testable.
      • Given a choice, the simplest hypothesis with the fewest assumptions is the most desirable.
5 steps of scientific method8
5. Steps of Scientific Method
  • Experiment - Re-creation of an event enabling an investigator to support or disprove a hypothesis.
    • Controlled - Separate variables and divide experiment into experimental and control groups, differing by only one variable.
    • Reproducibility - Experiment is repeated to eliminate unconscious bias.
      • Independent investigators must be able to reproduce the experiment.
5 steps of scientific method9
5. Steps of scientific method
  • Run experiment and record results
    • Graphs
    • Data tables
    • Summarize data and graphs
5 steps of scientific method10
5. Steps of Scientific Method
  • Publishing - Results must be publishedfor peers to be able to examine and criticize.
    • A hypothesis supported by many experiments and by different investigators is considered reliable.
6 what is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning
6.  What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
  • Inductive = insight, intuition used to form a hypothesis
  • Deductive = conclude, deduce, interprete results
7 what is the difference between a control and a test variable
7.  What is the difference between a control and a test variable?
  • Control = standard, consistant, does not change,
  • Test variable = changes
8 development of theories and laws
8. Development of Theories and Laws
  • Theory - A widely accepted, plausible generalization about fundamental scientific concepts that explain why things happen.
    • Kinetic Molecular Theory
      • Theory is also often used in a much less restrictive sense to describe a vague idea.
  • Scientific Law - A uniform or constant fact of nature that describes what happens in nature.
    • Law of Conservation of Mass
9 how do lab reports relate to sci method
9. How do lab reports relate to sci method?
  • Abstract: brief summary of experiment w/ hypothesis, overview
  • Intro: observation, background (lit review) and hypothesis
  • Methods: materials and describe how the experiment was run
  • Results: data tables, graphs, data and graph analysis
  • Discussion: was the hypothesis supported? What did other scientists find?
  • Conclusion: summary
  • References: cite references used