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Essentials of Physical Anthropology. Sixth Edition. Chapter 1. Introduction. Chapter Outline. What is Anthropology? Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology. Chapter Outline. Physical Anthropology Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • What is Anthropology?
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Archaeology
  • Linguistic Anthropology
chapter outline1
Chapter Outline
  • Physical Anthropology
  • Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method
  • The Anthropological Perspective
hominids
Hominids
  • Humans are hominids, belonging to the taxonomic family Hominidae.
  • Bipedalism, walking on two legs, is a critical feature of the hominids.
  • Humans are members of the Order Primates, the group of mammals that includes prosimians, monkeys and apes.
issues for physical anthropologists
Issues for Physical Anthropologists
  • Evolution
    • A change in the genetic structure of a population.
  • Adaptation
    • Functional response of organisms or populations to the environment.
    • Adaptation results from evolutionary change.
evolution
Evolution
  • Microevolution
    • Small genetic changes that occur within a species.
  • Macroevolution
    • Changes that occur only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation).
culture
technologies

subsistence patterns

housing types

clothing

religion

marriage and family

values

gender roles

Culture
  • Strategies humans use to adapt to their environment:
culture1
Culture
  • Culture is learned, and the process of learning one’s culture begins at birth.
  • Even though culture isn’t genetically determined, the human predisposition to assimilate culture is influenced by genetics.
  • Over time, culture and biology interacted in such a way that humans are said to be the result of biocultural evolution.
what is anthropology
What Is Anthropology?
  • The study of humankind.
  • Integrates sociology, economics, history, psychology, and biology.
  • Comprises three subfields:
    • cultural anthropology
    • archaeology
    • physical (or biological) anthropology
cultural anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
  • Studies all aspects of human behavior.
  • Subfields:
    • Urban anthropology deals with issues of inner cities.
    • Medical anthropology explores relationship between culture and health.
archaeology
Archaeology
  • Study and interpretation of material remains recovered from earlier cultures.
  • Information about culture comes from artifacts and material culture left by early hominids.
linguistic anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
  • Study of the origin of language and speech.
  • The use of language is a unique human characteristic.
  • Relationship between culture and language:
    • How do members of a society perceive phenomena?
    • How does the use of language shape perceptions?
physical anthropology
Physical Anthropology
  • Study of human biology in the framework of evolution.
  • Subfields:
    • Paleoanthropology - human evolution
    • Anthropometry - measurement of body parts
    • Primatology: study of nonhuman primates
    • Osteology: study of skeletons
physical anthropology and the scientific method
Physical Anthropologyand the Scientific Method
  • State the research problem.
  • Develop a hypothesis.
  • Test the hypothesis through data collection and analysis.
  • If the hypothesis is verified, it becomes a theory.
anthropological perspective
Anthropological Perspective
  • A broad perspective that helps us understand the diversity of the human experience within the context of biological and behavioral continuity with other species.
  • By learning about cultures other than our own, we can avoid an ethnocentric view of other cultures.
  • By recognizing that we have similarities with other animals, we may recognize that they have a place in nature just as we do.
slide20
1. The mammalian group that humans belong to is the Order
  • Carnivora.
  • Rodentia.
  • Primates.
  • Chiroptera.
answer c
Answer: c
  • The mammalian group that humans belong to is the Order Primates.
slide22
2. Culture is
  • inherited by a simple genetic transmission.
  • a biological trait of our species.
  • learned.
  • the strategy by which many mammals adapt to their environment.
answer c1
Answer: c
  • Culture is learned.
slide24
3. Anthropologists who conduct excavations in order to recover artifacts are
  • archaeologists
  • ethnologists
  • linguists
  • medical anthropologists
answer a
Answer: a
  • Anthropologists who conduct excavations in order to recover artifacts are archaeologists.
slide26
4. Physical anthropologists developed techniques for measuring the human body. These type of measurements are called:
  • calibration
  • dermatoglyphics
  • genetics
  • anthropometrics
answer d
Answer: d
  • Physical anthropologists developed techniques for measuring the human body. These type of measurements are called anthropometrics.