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Study Guide Chapter 14. 1. Describe the four basic types of volcanoes. Give two examples of each volcano type. 2. What is a caldera? Give an example of a caldera. 3. What is the Ring of Fire. Where is it located? What causes the Ring of Fire. 4. What is a batholith and laccolith.

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study guide chapter 14
Study Guide Chapter 14

1. Describe the four basic types of volcanoes. Give two examples of each volcano type.

2. What is a caldera? Give an example of a caldera.

3. What is the Ring of Fire. Where is it located? What causes the Ring of Fire.

4. What is a batholith and laccolith.

5. How are layers organized in a sedimentary rock. (Are layers on top younger or older than bottom layers?)

6. What is warping?

7. What is an anticline and syncline? What causes recumbent and overthrust folds.

study guide continued
Study Guide continued

8. Identify a normal, reverse, and strikeslip fault on a block diagram.

9. What is a fault scarp?

10.What type of fault is the San Andreas?

11.What is a graben. Give a well known example of a graben.

12.Where is the focus of an earthquake?

13.What is the epicenter.

14.What is the correlations between volcanic and earthquake locations.

volcanoes earthquakes and landforms and tectonic landforms
Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Landforms and Tectonic Landforms
  • Volcanism
  • Plutonism
  • Materials from volcanoes
    • Aa lava, blocky lava
    • Pahoehoe, ropy lava
    • Pryoclastic material: bombs, volcanic ash, cinders.
volcanoes
Volcanoes
  • Four different types of volcanoes
    • Composite cone or stratovolcano
    • Shield
    • Plug dome
    • Cinder cone
volcanoes1
Stratovolcano

Mix of lava flow and pyroclastic material. Examples: Mt. St. Helens and Mount Vesuvius, Mount Rainier, Mount Shasta.

Shield

Lots of lava, gas, and little ash. Gentle cones that emit basaltic lava. Builds broad structures with gentle slopes. Examples: Hawaii

Volcanoes
volcanoes2
Plug dome

Steep sided volcanoes with broad summits composed of solid lava. Example is Figure 14.2-Mt. Lassen in Northern California.

Cinder cone

Smallest type of volcano. Little lava and mostly pyroclastic material. Examples include Sunset Crater in Arizona and some cinder cones in California and Nevada deserts.

Volcanoes
calderas
Calderas
  • Composite volcano
  • Violent eruptions, summit collapses into empty magma chamber
  • Fills with water.
  • Crater Lake in Oregon
plutons
Plutons
  • Intrusive igneous bodies that are deep seated. After millions of years of erosion some of these forms are exposed.
  • The largest plutonic feature is a batholith.
  • Laccolith
batholith
Batholith
  • Larger than 100 square kilometers
  • Usually granite
  • Plutons that digest each other
  • Core of mountain ranges
  • Sierra Nevada or Rocky Mountains
laccolith
Laccolith
  • Mushroom shape
  • Blister below Earth’s surface
  • Also forms core of mountain ranges and hills.
earthquakes
Earthquakes
  • Vibrations of the Earth that occur when accumulating strain of slow crustal deformation is suddenly released by displacement along a fault.
  • Focus- Point where earthquake occurs.
  • Epicenter-Point on surface above focus.
faulting
Faulting
  • Lateral faults
    • Right lateral strike slip fault
    • Left lateral strike slip fault
  • Reverse faults
  • Normal faults
geology concepts
Geology Concepts
  • Warping
  • Laying of sediments
    • Oldest to youngest
  • Graben
    • Death Valley