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Ch. 5-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 5.2 Basic Life Support Sequence Determining Responsiveness Activating the EMS System Opening the Airway Determining Breathlessness Providing Rescue Breathing Determining Pulselessness Deliver Chest Compressions Defibrillation Where Available Vocabulary

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Ch. 5-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

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5 2 basic life support sequence
5.2 Basic Life Support Sequence
  • Determining Responsiveness
  • Activating the EMS System
  • Opening the Airway
  • Determining Breathlessness
  • Providing Rescue Breathing
  • Determining Pulselessness
  • Deliver Chest Compressions
  • Defibrillation Where Available



Cardiac arrest- A condition in which the heart stops beating

Defibrillation- The application of electricity to the chest of a victim whose heart has stopped

Larynx- The voice box


progress check

1. In cardiac arrest, the heart stops because it is not getting the ____________ it needs. (electrical stimulation/rest/oxygen)

2.CPR consists of opening the airway, providing rescue breathing, and providing ____________.

(chest compressions/defibrillation/intrathoracic massage)

3. The key objectives of CPR are to ____________ and circulate the blood. (provide rescue breathing/defibrillate/oxygenate)

4. For each minute a heart is stopped, a victim loses approximately ___________ % from his chance of survival.


5. A key to survival in cardiac arrest is ___________ CPR.



determining breathlessness
Determining Breathlessness
  • Look for the chest to rise and fall
  • Listen for air escaping during exhalation
  • Feel for the breath against your cheek


determining pulselessness
Determining Pulselessness

1. Maintain the head tilt with one hand on the victim’s forehead, and place the first two fingers of other hand on the larynx (voice box).

2. Locate the carotid artery.

3. Exert only gentle pressure to avoid compressing the carotid artery, and feel for a pulse for as long as 10 seconds.

4. While checking pulse, be alert for other signs of life—including movements, breathing, gasping, or coughing—that could indicate a pulse is present.


progress check7

1. The first step in the basic life support sequence is to

determine ____________.


2. If you determine that the victim is unresponsive, you

should immediately ____________.

(open the airway/start CPR/activate the EMS system)

3. Before you can determine whether the victim is

breathing, you need to ____________.

(open the airway/provide two rescue breaths/start CPR)

4. Before you can determine whether the heart is beating,

you need to ____________.

(position the victim/provide two rescue breaths/start CPR)


5 3 chest compressions
5.3 Chest Compressions
  • Positioning Your Hands
  • Delivering Chest Compressions



Xiphoid process- The lower tip of the sternum

Substernal notch- The notch at the spot where the ribs join the sternum

Ventricular fibrillation- A chaotic, unorganized beating effort of the heart that is incapable of producing a pulse or circulation


performing one rescuer adult cpr
Performing One-Rescuer Adult CPR

1.Position your hands properly on the victim’s chest as described above.

2. Deliver 15 chest compressions at the rate of about 100 per minute. Count aloud to keep track of the compressions.

3. Remove your hands from the victim’s chest, open the airway, and deliver two rescue breaths


terminating cpr
Terminating CPR
  • Breathing and heartbeat start again spontaneously (this is unusual; most cases of cardiac arrest require defibrillation and advanced life support procedures)
  • Another trained rescuer, a physician, or an individual or team directed by a physician assumes responsibility for basic life support
  • A physician tells you to stop
  • The victim is transferred to an appropriate medical care facility
  • You are exhausted and unable to continue life support
  • Conditions (such as a fire, noxious fumes, or an unstable

building) make it unsafe for you to continue

  • The victim is declared dead by a physician


progress check16

1. You must properly position your ____________ during chest compressions, or you can injure the victim. (shoulders/hands/knees)

2. The xiphoid process is the tip of the ___________. (rib/clavicle/sternum)

3. The substernal notch is the notch where the ____________ meet(s) the sternum. (ribs/clavicle/xiphoid)

4. During chest compressions, keep your shoulders straight and your elbows ____________. (bent/locked/aligned)

5. After every two rescue breaths, deliver __________ chest compressions. (10/15/20)

6. Once you start CPR, you must continue it until breathing and pulse return, someone else takes over, or ____________. (you are told to stop/you are too tired to continue/you injure the victim)

7. During two-rescuer CPR, the First Aider at the victim’s side should never ____________. (lift hands off the chest/deliver rescue breaths)

8. If delivering chest compressions to an infant, use ____________.

(two fingers/one hand/both hands)


5 4 mistakes complications and when to withhold
5.4 Mistakes, Complications,and When to Withhold
  • Complications Caused by CPR
    • Fracture of the ribs or sternum
    • Separation of rib cartilage (common in the elderly)
    • Pneumothorax


withholding cpr
Withholding CPR
  • There is rigor mortis or other signs of death.
  • The victim is decapitated.
  • The victim has wounds that will certainly cause death.


5 5 defibrillation
5.5 Defibrillation
  • Defibrillation is done by automated external defibrillators (AEDs)
  • Ventricular fibrillation is a chaotic, unorganized beating of the heart that is incapable of producing a pulse or contraction
  • Defibrillation literally shocks the heart into the proper organized rhythm


cardiac arrest in pediatric patients
Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Patients
  • In the event of cardiac arrest in pediatric patients 1 year or older, defibrillate with adult pads if pediatric-specific pads or devices are unavailable. Pediatric pads should not be used on adult patients.


progress check22

1. Ventricular fibrillation is an ________ beating effort of the heart. (accelerated/unorganized/ordinary)

2. If you are alone with a victim in cardiac arrest and you have an AED available, you should perform _________ first. (CPR/defibrillation/a neuro exam)

3. Before analyzing or shocking a victim with an AED you should _______ the victim. (roll/clear/ventilate)