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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Dr. Rupak Bhattarai. Introduction.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a technique rescue breathing combined with chest compression. The purpose of CPR is to temporarily maintained the circulation sufficient to preserve brain function until specialized treatment is available.
when to start cpr
When to start CPR?
  • Rescuers should start CPR if the victims have no signs of life( Unconscious, unresponsive, not moving and not breathing at all).
  • Even when the victims takes a occasional gaps, rescuers should suspect that cardiac arrest has occurred and start CPR.
types of life support providers
  • BLS

Basic life support

(Adult, pediatric)

  • ALS

Advanced Life Support

(Adult, pediatric)

steps of resuscitation
  • Initial steps of resuscitation are:


  • Check for danger(hazards, risk and safety).
  • Check for response (unresponsive, unconscious).
  • Opening the airway (Look for signs of life).
  • Give rescue breathing (Give two rescue breaths if not breathing normally).
  • Give 30 chest compression (almost 2 compression per second) followed by 2 breaths)
  • Attach AED (automated external defibrillator) if available and follow the prompts
  • Assessment of spontaneous breathing should immediately follow the opening or establishment of the airway.
  • Initially 2 breaths are slowly administered .
  • If these breaths cannot be delivered , either the airway is still obstructed and the head and neck need repositioning or a foreign body is present that must be removed.
breathing contd
  • Mouth to mouth ventilation.
  • Mouth to mask ventilation.
  • Tracheal intubation.
  • The circulatory system must be supported by combination of external chest compressions, intravenous drug administration, and defibrillation when appropriate.
where to compress


The desired compression point for CPR in adults is over the lower half of the sternum. The other hand should be placed over the hand on the sternum with the fingers interlocked or extended. The rescuers shoulders should be positioned directly over the hands with the elbows locked in position and the arms extended so that the weight of the upper body is used for compressions.

The sternum is depressed 4-5 cm in adults or 2-4 cm in children and then allowed to return to its normal position.


Either 2 breaths are administered every 15 compression (15:2) or (30:2) are also recommended.

  • The cardiac compression rate should be 100/min regardless of numbers of rescuers.
  • Chest compression force blood to flow either by increasing intra-thoracic pressure or by directly compressing the heart ( cardiac pump).
  • Ventricular fibrillation is found most commonly in adults who experience non-traumatic cardiac arrest.
  • The chance of survival decreases 7-10% for every minute without defibrillation.
  • Defibrillators deliver energy in either mono-phasic or biphasic waveforms.
Automated external defibrillators (AED) are available in many institutions world wide.
  • Compared to mono-phasic shocks, biphasic shocks deliver energy in two directions with equivalent efficacy at lower energy levels and possibly with less myocardial injury.
  • When using AED , one electrode pad is placed beside the upper right sternal border, just below the clavicle , and the other pad is placed just lateral to a left nipple , with the top of the pad a few inches below the axilla.

For cardio-version of atrial-fibrillation about 50-100 J can be used initially with escalation if needed.

  • For atrial flutter or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia(PSVT), an initial energy level of 30-50 J is often adequate.
  • Ventricular tachycardia ( monomorphic)-100 J is effective.
  • Ventricular tachycardia ( polymorphic)- 120 – 200 J is effective.
  • Stepwise increases in energy levels should be used if first shock fails.