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Addressing biodiversity impacts in risk analysis: the need for information exchange on invasiveness Maj De Poorter, Mick Clout, Michael Browne Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), IUCN Centre for Biodiversity and Biosecurity, University of Auckland, New Zealand Definitions used

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addressing biodiversity impacts in risk analysis the need for information exchange on invasiveness

Addressing biodiversity impacts in risk analysis: the need for information exchange on invasiveness

Maj De Poorter, Mick Clout, Michael Browne

Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), IUCN

Centre for Biodiversity and Biosecurity,

University of Auckland, New Zealand

definitions used
Definitions used
  • Invasive alien species (IAS): alien species whose introduction and/or spread threaten biological diversity (CBD, 2002).
  • Introduction: movement by human agency, indirect or direct, of an alien species outside of its natural range - past or present (CBD 2002) Note: can be within a country
  • Biodiversity = Biological Diversity: Diversity of species (including lower taxa), habitats and ecosystems
slide4

Plants can be major IAS

Photo: Scott Kam

slide5

MAGNITUDE OF THREAT: Invasive alien species are a large and growing threat worldwide, affecting biodiversity and livelihoods

Photo: Fen Beed

un convention on biological diversity
UN Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Article 8(h): ‘….prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats and species.’
  • Decision VI/23: Guiding principles, etc…
  • Decision VI/9: Global Plant Strategy (Target 10)
  • Draft POW Island Biodiversity
international plant protection convention ippc
International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
  • ISPM 11 - Rev 1 spells out
    • Commodity itself can be invasive (e.g. the garden plant can be a potential weed)
    • Secondary effects of plant pest on other taxa can be covered
    • Effect on plant via effect on other taxa can be covered
    • Effects on native plants can be covered
slide8

Complexity of biodiversity impacts

The environmental impacts caused by IAS are wide ranging and often more complex and surprising than the impacts of, for example, agricultural weeds

complexity dual personality species
Complexity: “Dual Personality Species”

Photo: S. Ziller

slide10

Complexity: “Time lags”, adaptation

Invasion easy to notice – hard to fight

Invasiveness not easy to notice – but easy to fight

Population size

Time

Time

slide11

Complexity: “surprising” indirect effects

  • Invasive alien plant Chromolaena odorata, in S. Africa: major invader of wetlands……
  • is a potential risk to:

CROCODILESEX RATIO

slide12

Complexity: ecosystem meltdown

Xmas Island : millions of migrating red crabs….

Killed by Yellow crazy ants

slide13

Negative impacts:

  • trees
  • seedlings
  • species compo- sition
  • litter breakdown
solution
Solution
  • 1) “guilty until proven innocent” - In the context of alien species, unless there is a reasonable likelihood that an introduction will be harmless, it should be treated as likely to be harmful (IUCN 2000).
  • 2) Prevention, prevention, prevention!
prevention intentional introductions
Prevention – Intentional introductions
  • White list – of alien species where risk analysis led to a determination that they are ‘low’ risk - and authorisation for introduction has been granted.
  • Black list – of alien species where risk analysis led to a determination that they are ‘high’ risk and therefore are prohibited for introduction.
  • Grey list – (further) review / analysis is required before a decision can be made. Introduction is not authorised at this stage.
  • New Zealand applies this white-black-grey list approach to all intentional introductions, and includes risks to biodiversity….
prevention unintentional introductions
Prevention: Unintentional introductions
  • Unintentional introductions minimised through risk-based management of pathways
  • Example: NZ Risk analysis for exotic spiders associated with imported table grapes. Risk analysis included human health and risk to native fauna and flora. Resulted in tightening of IHS.
  • Cooperation:
    • Ministry Agriculture and Forestry
    • Department of Conservation
    • Ministry of Health
prevention risk analysis
Prevention  Risk Analysis
  • Under the IPPC, a risk analysis for a country will assess
      • the risk of entry,
      • risk of establishment and
      • potential damage that the alien species may cause
      • options for management
  • Including biodiversity risks is a challenge: wider range of impacts, time lags, complexity,
  •  Information on prior invasiveness elsewhere is critical
a risk of entry
A) Risk of entry
  • Information required includes:
  • pathways associated with a species in the past
  • up to date information on the global distribution - native and alien (can “get on” a pathway from alien range too)
  • Pathway : introduction, but also for “spread”
  • (spread usually has a large human component)
risk of establishment vulnerability of receiving environment
Risk of establishment: vulnerability of “receiving” environment
  • CLIMEX, GARP, BIOSECURE…
  • An invasive species can show a wider climate and/or environmental tolerance in alien range (e.g Possum in NZ, Salvinia in Sri Lanka)
  • Predictions & modeling should be based on native and alien distributions
potential damage threats to biodiversity
Potential damage: threats to Biodiversity
  • Information about impacts caused elsewhere (e.g. predation, competition, hybridisation, etc) can be used
  • IAS + exposure of native biodiversity  impacts
  • Biodiversity Impacts caused by IAS will be different from one area to another
  • It will usually not be possible, nor should it be required, to predict the exact details
  • (“PRA is a decision making tool
  • not an ecosystem model” Randall)
potential damage risk of invasiveness
Potential Damage: Risk of Invasiveness

"Only one factor has consistently high correlation with invasiveness: whether or not the species is invasive elsewhere“ (Wittenberg et al. 2001).

Photo: Landcare

management options
Management options
  • Information on prevention, early detection and rapid response, eradication and control methods used elsewhere
  • Lessons learned from success and failure
  • need to be shared widely
to summarise
To summarise
  • Globally sourced information is needed
  • ecological characteristics
  • prior invasiveness
  • biodiversity impacts caused
  • global distribution (alien range as well as native)
  • introduction pathways
  • pathways for spread (including human)
  • management, and lessons learned
issg s role
ISSG’s role
  • The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of IUCN is involved in several "vehicles" for such international information exchange, including

1) Manages the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)

2) Planned development of a "global register of invasive species“

3) The listserver Aliens-L

4) Contributes to Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN)

global invasive species database
Global Invasive Species Database
  • International cooperation
  • Collaborative effort of ISSG, UOA, Landcare, NBII
  • 50,700 hits per day (700 individual users)

www.issg.org/database and www.invasivespecies.net/database

global invasive species database26
Global Invasive Species Database
  • Authoritative information on IAS that affect biodiversity
  • Management tool as well as raising awareness
  • Standardised, simple format
  • Free& easily available
  • Globally sourced information for local deployment
    • Ecology, pathways
    • Distribution and biostatus (by country)
    • Management (generic and location specific)
    • References, links, contacts
2 development global register invasive species
2) Development global register invasive species
  • Aim of such global register / masterlist:
  • Provide a warning that an alien species has been considered to have biodiversity impacts anywhere in the world
  • Users can follow up on those cases that are most relevant to them
  • Information from
  • National and regional sources
  • Agencies, but also practitioners
  • Will include information not formally published
  • ISSG and IUCN expert networks.
3 aliens l
3) Aliens-L
  • Dedicated to IAS information and related issues
  • Focus on environmental invasive species
  • You can make use of Alien-L without subscribing to it
  • Searchable archive: http://cain.nbii.gov/cgi-bin/aliens-l.cgi
  • Practitioners helping each other
  • Email based rather than internet
  • Anarchic and grassroots
  • 600 subscribers
  • It works!

R.Wittenberg

4 the global invasive species information network gisin
4) The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN)
  • Will provide a platform through which IAS data and information from participating databases can be accessed.
  • Build the capacity of network members - ‘capacity building’ database that will be offered at no cost
  • ISSG contributions to development of the GISIN include development of an exchange standard for sharing IAS information (see the draft Invasive Species Profile Schema Login: ias Password: ias2). https://www.biodiv.org/doc/restricted/gisin/default.aspx
food for thought 1 internet digital divide
Food for thought (1) : Internet  Digital Divide

Providing internet access is not enough - it disenfranchises those with slow, unreliable or NO internet access (e.g S Pacific, Large Parts of Africa,…)

food for thought 2 conservation commons
Food for thought (2): Conservation Commons
  • Information is power
  • Social equity – communities must be able to solve their own IAS problems
  • IUCN believes that information for Conservation must be freely available
  • Conservation Commons has the following principles:
    • Open Access
    • Mutual Benefit
    • Rights and Responsibilities
conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • IAS management requires International information exchange (as well as national and regional) – prior invasiveness information is critical
  • Structured as well as “grass roots” approaches are required
  • Internet is good but not the whole answer
  • Information that will assist IAS management for conservation must be freely available
  • We welcome assistance – partnerships, resources
slide33

Prevention of IAS protects biodiversity, livelihoods, economy, health

Prevention of IAS protects current

and future trade

Thank you

www.issg.org