lecture 4 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lecture 4 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Lecture 4

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

Lecture 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 377 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lecture 4. Everest. Mount Everest. 8850 meters Separates Nepal and Tibet 1953 – first successful climb By 1980, 100 climbers ascended to summit 1985 David Breashers guided wealthy Texas businessman, Dick Bass, to the top Started trend to commercial expeditions

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Lecture 4


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Lecture 4 Everest

    2. Mount Everest • 8850 meters • Separates Nepal and Tibet • 1953 – first successful climb • By 1980, 100 climbers ascended to summit • 1985 • David Breashers guided wealthy Texas businessman, Dick Bass, to the top • Started trend to commercial expeditions • Less experienced people climbing • Profit was part of the goal • 1996 • 846 successful ascents • 148 deaths

    3. Adventure Consultant • Established 1992 • Robert Hall and Gary Ball • Experienced climbers • Seven Summits: 7 highest peaks on each of the 7 continents • Included Everest • Ball dies of cerebral edema amidst success • Cost: $65,000 • 1994 • Hall guided 39 clients • 1995 • “100% Success” • Failed expedition due to extreme weather • 1996 • Planned Everest expedition

    4. Hall’s Climbing Team • Leader – Hall • Guides • Mike Groom • Climbed Everest without bottled oxygen • Andy Harris • No Everest experience • Helpers • Ang Dorje • 6 climbing sherpas

    5. Hall’s Recruited Clients • No experience • Beck Weathers, John Taske, Stuart Hutchison, John Krakauer • Unsuccessful attempts • Doug Hansen (H – 1995), Frank Fischbeck • Experience with other peaks • Lou Kasischke, Yasuko Namba

    6. Mountain Madness • Established, 1984 • Scott Fischer • Offered climbing instruction and guided experience • Fischer • Expert climber • 8000 peaks • Climbed Everest without supplemental oxygen on 4th attempt • Inspired by Hall’s 1994 successful guided climb

    7. Fischer’s Climbing Team • Leader – Fischer • Guides • Anatoli Boukreev • Climbed Everest without bottled oxygen • Neil Beidlman • No Everest experience • Helpers • Lopsang Jangbu • 7 climbing sherpas

    8. Fischer’s Clients • No experience • Kiev Schoening • Tim Madsen • Unsuccessful attempts • Sandy Hill Pittman • Dale Kruse (known to have altitude sickness) • Experiences • Pete Schoening (Legend, 68) • Lene Gammelgaard • Martin Adams • Charlotte Fox

    9. Journey to Base Camp • Base Camp • Shelter for climbers • Tents are maintained by sherpas • Food, drink, communication center • Fischer’s team arrives on April 8th • Hall’s team arrives on April 9th • Problems • Polluted air and unsanitary living conditions in villages cause respiratory and digestive ailments • Logistical problems • Fischer’s oxygen supply, tent, supplies • Time burden vs. planning and acclimating

    10. Reservations • Boukreev • Readiness • Ability • Language difficulties • Prepare the mountain for people vs. prepare the people for the mountain • Krakauer • Normal people • No hard core climbers • Others • Team reliance • Self esteem • Guide climbing without supplemental oxygen

    11. Acclimatization • Performed in Mid April • Strenuous activity • High altitude • Climbing mixed with rest and recovery • Major health issues to avoid • Altitude Pulmonary Edema • Swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs that leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure • Must maintain adequate oxygenation • Altitude Cerebral Edema • An excess accumulation of water in the intra- and/or extra-cellular spaces of the brain • Must descend immediately or med-evac

    12. Oxygen Issues • Bottled oxygen necessary for final summit • Guides also should employ bottled oxygen for client safety • Pete Schoening started using bottled oxygen at base camp • Bottled oxygen was in limited supply

    13. Base Camp to Camp II • May 6th • Problems prior to climb • Insufficient number of radios • Lack of team spirit • Established 2 o’clock rule • If you aren’t at the top by two, it’s time to turn around. Darkness is not your friend. • Schoening (sr -F) becomes ill • Fischer accompanies him back to base camp then back to Camp II • Hansen (H) gets frost bite and frozen larynx • Hall forcibly encourages Krakauer and Hansen to continue • Fischer handles sherpa illness and death • Hall – my word is law

    14. Base Camp to Camp II • Radios a joke • Only three • Held by each guide • Kruse (F) gets sick • Fischer accompanies him back to base camp • Friendship has him leave the team • Hall • Anyone can get up • The trick is getting down alive

    15. Camp II to Camp III • May 8th • Harris (H – guide) gets hit by a small boulder • IMAX (Breashears) team goes back because of bad weather • Boukreev doubtful about weather • Kasischke (H) and Fischbeck (H) struggling

    16. Camp IV • May 9th • 60 mph wind speed • Erecting tents difficult • Hall’s plan • When weather calms, proceed to summit during midnight, return to Camp IV by nightfall • No set 2 o’clock rule • Hansen (H) health deteriorating • Emotionally driven by past failed attempts

    17. Summit Day • May 9th, 11:30 PM teams depart Camp IV • Hall and Fischer at rear • Each client has two oxygen canisters • Problems • Taske (H), Hutchison (H), Kasischke (H), and Fischbeck (H) turn back before summit • 5:30 AM • Krakauer (H) and Ang Dorje (H – sherpa) discover no ropes affixed for remaining 500m • 1 hour wasted until all clients arrive • Lopsang Jangbu (F - sherpa) assisted Pitman (F) for 6 hours to lower camp

    18. Summit Day • Fischer remains at back to help struggling clients • His physical condition deteriorates • Weathers condition deteriorating • Clients opting to grab 3rd oxygen on the way up • Noon to 1PM • Ropes need to be affixed to Hillary Step • 1PM • Krakauer (H), Harris (H - guide), Boukreev (F – guide) reach summit • Beidlman (F – guide), Adams (F) follow

    19. Summit Day • Critical Error • Harris thought that no supplemental oxygen remained at south summit • 2:00 PM • No more of Fischer’s clients have reached summit • Beidlman (F – guide) wants to advise to turn back but feel too junior to advise Boukreev (F – guide) and Fischer • 2:30 PM • Hall and Groom (H – guide) reach summit with other clients • 3:45 PM • Fischer reaches summit • 4:00 PM • Hansen (H) reaches summit • Hall waited for Hansen

    20. The Descent • Weather problems • Descent pace is very slow • Boukreev (F – guide) descended quickly to Camp IV • Decision questionable • Hall remained above Hillary Step • Could not provide oxygen to Hansen (H) by Harris’ (H – guide) report • Made it to South Summit • 6:00 PM Hall is still there • Fischer with serious heath problems • Lopsang (F – sherpa) goes to Camp IV for Boukreev • Boukreev stuck due to weather

    21. The Descent • 9:00 PM • Krakauer (H) and Adams (F) reach Camp IV • Beidlman (F – guide), Groom, 7 clients, 3 sherpas huddle together lost to wait for break in storm • Beidlman (F – guide), Groom (H – guide), Schoening (F), Gammelgaard (F) reach Camp IV • Boukreev (F – guide) rescues Pitman (F), Fox (F), Madsen (F), leaves Namba (H) and Weathers (H) • Hall radios that Hansen was dead and Hall is climbing down • Sherpa team cannot rescue Fischer • Weather makes it to Camp IV • May 12th • Hall, Fischer, Hansen, Namba, and Harris are dead

    22. Closing Thoughts • Recruitment • Competitiveness • Prestige • Profit • Experience • Arrogance