Images of Terror. Terrorism and Globalization. Globalization I Targets -- autocratic state, colonial state Methods: assassination Globalization II Targets -- fascist and colonial state; “capitalist,” “racist” state Methods: assassination & bombing Globalization III
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Terrorism and Globalization Globalization I Targets -- autocratic state, colonial state Methods: assassination Globalization II Targets -- fascist and colonial state; “capitalist,” “racist” state Methods: assassination & bombing Globalization III Targets -- colonial and “neo-colonial” states Methods: bombing
Key characteristic of GIII: • Global transport & transnationalism • Networks that reach beyond nation-state • Examples: narco-terror, al-Qaeda (?)
Problem of Definition • Distinction between terror and terrorism • Maryland sniper vs. al-Qaeda attack on USS Cole • Terrorism part of broader political program • Low intensity war directed at states • Challenges state’s claim to monopoly of violence • Threaten security of population
Terror process • Seizing attention • The Message • What does the organization want? • Message not always clear • The Response • Reactions unpredictable
Strategies of Terrorism • Enforcement • Discourage cooperation with state • Agitation • Propaganda by deed -- seeking sympathy & moral endorsement
SUMMATION • Psychological warfare • One tactic among other for altering political landscape • Effects diminish over time
Assessment as Political Tactic • Primarily effective in colonial situation or under conditions of occupation • VC, anti-fascist guerilla war in Europe during WWII • Or in aftermath of colonialism where some issues unresolved • Example: IRA & Northern Ireland • Will IRA disarm? Other instances
Nationalism and Terror • Nation vs State • Nation: population sharing common heritage • State: political-legal apparatus
Moral Ambiguity • Terror • Counter-terror
Religious Terrorism • How to explain religious revivalism and globalization? • Religious-based violence • Theological demand • Eliminate enemies: elimination, not persuasion • Appeal to no other constituency but themselves Cosmic revolution???
Islamism • Origin: Turkey • Response to Kemal revolution • Pan-regional to produce alternative modernity
Solutions? • Deal with terror as political issue • Means addressing root causes, commitment to change, negotiation • Better coordination of “intelligence” • Recognize that US actions and interests abroad have consequences • Does US have interests in Middle East beyond Oil?
Questions for discussion: • 1) Are the kinds of terror incidents we see today part of the tensions generated by Globalization III? If so, are these issues being addressed by authorities? • 2) Can we distinguish between the kinds of political movements today that use terrorism tactics and the more classic forms associated with nationalist movements? What are the similarities and differences?
3)Should we distinguish between the actions of various Palestinian groups, all of which seem to be directed at the continued struggle with Israel over land and the creation of a Palestinian state the same thing as the activities of al-Qaeda? 4) A key principle of the war on terror is that all terrorism is the same. Given the tortured local histories that seem to animate the contemporary use of terror tactics, is it useful to draw equivalencies between Maoist guerillas in Nepal, Chechnya rebels in Russia, Moro guerillas in the Philippines, Hamas, Hezbollah, and al-Qaeda?
5) Is counter-terrorism a threat to democracy? Does it undermine the usual checks and balances of government? • 6) What would be measured responses to terrorist threats? Have our leaders over-reacted? How would we know?