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Global Network for Avian Influenza Surveillance Act (GNAIS). Final Briefing. Brook Jackson, Jeff Smith , Katie King, Vanessa Pena, and Leyla Pourarkin August 16 th , 2006. Avian Influenza Overview. Brook Jackson. Jeff Smith. Brook Jackson. History Science Uncertainties.

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Global network for avian influenza surveillance act gnais l.jpg
Global Network for Avian Influenza Surveillance Act (GNAIS)

Final Briefing

Brook Jackson, Jeff Smith,

Katie King, Vanessa Pena, and Leyla Pourarkin

August 16th, 2006


Avian influenza overview l.jpg
Avian Influenza Overview

Brook Jackson

Jeff Smith

Brook Jackson

History

Science

Uncertainties

Legislation

Measuring Success

Controversies


Avian influenza the basics l.jpg
Avian Influenza: The Basics

  • Primarily a bird disease

  • Different than human influenza

  • Zoonotic disease

  • Human pandemic potential

  • Unknown transmission path

Avian Influenza (AI) is a virus

Bar-Headed Goose

http://w3.whosea.org/LinkFiles/Publications_and_Documents_factors.pdf

http://www.nature.com/


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H5

N1

www.influenza-pandemic.com

Science: Virology 101

Virus

  • Organism that infects cells

  • AI virus are identified by H and N proteins

Pathogen

Organism that causes disease

Low Pathogenic

LP: Less likely to cause death

High Pathogenic

HP: High rates of mortality

news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=161&id=240762006


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History: Timeline

1878

1918

1957

1968

1997

2003

2005

Pandemic flu

Hong Kong flu

Re-emergence of HP H5N1

HP H5N1 found in migratory birds

HP influenza first recognized in Italy

Asian flu

HP H5N1 in Hong Kong-18 dead

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/timeline.pdf


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Contraction and Transmission

Wild

Birds

Wild

Birds

Infection from wild birds to domestic birds

Mutation

Bird flu strain

Bird flu strain

Transmission from person to person could occur

www.bird-flu-masks.co.uk/


Contraction and transmission7 l.jpg
Contraction and Transmission

Wild

Birds

Wild

Birds

Infection from wild birds to domestic birds

Reassortment

New strain

of flu virus

Bird flu strain

Bird flu strain

Human flu strain

Transmission from person to person could occur

Simultaneous infection of both viruses

www.bird-flu-masks.co.uk/


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Major Transfer Mechanisms

Migration

of wild birds

1

Trade

of domestic

and wild birds

2

Source: www.news.bbc.co.uk

Source: www.paulnoll.com

Mechanisms of AI transfer may be trade or migration or a combination of both…


Avian influenza spread migratory bird flyways l.jpg
Avian Influenza Spread: Migratory Bird Flyways

http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/subjects/en/health/diseases-cards/migrationmap.html


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Avian Influenza Spread:Legal Trade

www.cgfi.org/


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Avian Influenza Spread:Global Outlook

Nations With Confirmed Cases H5N1 Avian Influenza as of July 7, 2006

http://www.pandemicflu.gov/


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Multiple Dimensions of Avian Influenza

Political

Economic

Social

Ecological

http://w3.whosea.org/LinkFiles/Publications_and_Documents_factors.pdf

http://www.quepasa.com/newsimages/content/

www.mumbaimirror.com/


Ecological concerns l.jpg
Ecological Concerns

  • Loss of Biodiversity

  • Threat to vulnerable species

  • Introduction into naive species

endangered.fws.gov/i/B0G.html

  • Ecosystem Impacts

  • Environmental instability

  • Human backlash

http://www.eljee.com/gallery/slideshow.php


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Reasons for Legislation

The objective is to more accurately determine the following uncertainties:

  • Wild bird flyways

  • Wild–domestic birds interfaces

  • Viral mutations and reassortment


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The Solution

Global Network

for Avian Influenza

Surveillance

(GNAIS)

(S. 1912 / H.R. 4476) – Sen. Lieberman and Rep. DeLauro


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Global Network for Avian Influenza Surveillance (GNAIS) Act

Global Network

for Avian Influenza

Surveillance

(GNAIS)

Training &

On-site research

International

monitoring

& testing

Information

database


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Avian Influenza US Appropriations

Domestic wild bird surveillance $11.6 million

+

International wild bird surveillance

$10 million GNAIS funds

National and International human pandemic response funds

$3.7 billion


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Secretary of Health and Human Services

Conservation

NGO

GNAIS Partners

Testing

International cooperation

National Cooperation

International Institutions

Government agencies abroad

Other conservation NGOs

Other US Agencies

Veterinary Colleges

Certified

Laboratories


The solutions l.jpg
The Solutions

Collect and test the samples

Track changes of virus

Applying

the Data

Determine transmission and spread

Monitor wild bird flyways

Collect migration data

Define wild bird flyways


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GNAIS Database

Through migratory bird monitoring, sampling, testing, and partner training, a predictive model may be created

Early Detection System

GNAIS

Diagnostic

Incidence

Viral Detection

Gene Sequencing

Protein Typing

Distribution

Movement

Prevalence


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MeasuringSuccess

Key Success Factors

Key Success Indicators

  • # of countries participating

  • # of visas and permits granted

Political

  • # of certified researchers/labs/volunteers

  • Uniformity of tests and procedures

Quality of Data

  • Predictive modeling capacity

  • # of governments participating

Database Use


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Scientific Controversies

Achievement

Failure

Standardization

Task hard to manage globally

Training and coordination

Incorrect training exacerbates the problem

Technology consistency

Lack of access to technology


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Other GNAIS Controversies

Political

Will countries be transparent and share information?

Economic

Will fear of economic loss impede its success?

Social

Will cultural barriers prevent effective communication?


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SummaryGNAIS

  • Global initiative

  • Wild bird migrations focus

  • Predictive modeling

  • International cooperation

  • Proactive and innovative

Photo by: BillyKaresh

www.marvingottlieb.com

http://www.proactive.vt.edu/images/icon_publications_17.gif

www.mmoca.org

en.arocha.org


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A Special Thanks To…

http://www.birdlife.org

Our Advisor: Professor Cook

And the entire Bird Flu Team:

Brook Jackson, Katie King, Nina Kishore,

Matt Klasen, Becca Pass, Vanessa Pena,

Jon Philipsborn, Leyla Pourarkin, Meghan Schloat, Jeff Smith, and Melissa Wright

Thank you for your dedication and hard work!