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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CALLIGRAPHY EDUCATION IN TAIWAN USING THE CALLIGRAPHY TEACHING OF PROFESSOR ZHANG BING-HUANG AS A CASE STUDY. ---By Ming-Ta Kao--. Chapter 1 The Problem and its Background. 1.1 Introduction and statement of the problem.
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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CALLIGRAPHY EDUCATION IN TAIWAN USING THE CALLIGRAPHY TEACHING OF PROFESSOR ZHANG BING-HUANG AS A CASE STUDY ---By Ming-Ta Kao--
Chapter 1 The Problem and its Background
1.1 Introduction and statement of the problem • China's Chinese word, of long standing and well established, our country's inherent traditional culture. • The ancient style of calligraphy, current in the Zhou Dynasty from the ancient Chinese prose of the style of calligraphy is to the lesser seal character, subordinate to through seal character, model, transportation, grass, various physique take shape gradually. Among characters, various nationalities of world, can independent calligraphy art of class only.
Large seal character-Ancient style of calligraphy, current in the Zhou Dynasty
Write pen, Chinese ink, paper, inkstone used, except tool, can also appreciate, represent mankind's noble quality, represent special art of the spirit of the times too.
Black - loose one scorched, make by special method, after mixing it with water, ? Wear into black Chinese ink, is used for writing.
Because of the flourishing development of science and technology, have written tools and already had a brand-new change, the practical value of the calligraphy, in such an objective environment, certainly has already been challenged deeply. In fact, the modern society which we extremely developed in the material progress, life is tense, soul is hollow, real and necessary through the implementation that the calligraphy educated, to adjust life and moist soul. And calligraphy artistic aesthetics and happy feeling getting happy speciality and function, beautify life in we aesthetic sentiment to nourish and cherish us also, the calligraphy should not be forgotten for people.
1.2 cause of the study • Written with writing brush calligraphy, practical value its write the tool or computer replace while being other already. • The government does not pay attention to calligraphy education. • Some people even think Chinese write and hamper science and technology's progress. • I think: The above-mentioned views are not totally correct, hope to look for a road to save Chinese calligraphy development.
1.3 Delimitation of callgraphy The refered calligraphy of this research, only mean that writes art of Chinese characters.
1.4 scope of the study • The calligraphy that this text speaks, the orthodox calligraphy that has meant for 6,000 years is spoken. • Engaged in the example that the calligraphy educates in Taiwan withZhang Bing-Huang professor, is engaged in research 。
1.5 The significance and the purpose of the study • The People's Republic of China has a large population, and the national power is rich, the United Nations, in 2008, determine old China hand competent characters that use as formal tomorrow simplified Chinese character. • Use the country or area of ' the roman word ', only have Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao left. • The People's Republic of China has already found the drawback of the simplified Chinese character, is the calligraphy of Taiwan educated? Bear, save one outstanding serious responsibility of culture heavy to let.
Chapter 2 The theoretical framework
2.1 Relevant Theories This study is based on the theoretical basis of Edmund Husserl’s phenomenon study.
2.2 Method to study in phenomenon • （1）Leave the question open law • (2) The essence ocular law • (3) Increase description that does not reduce • (4) Both as subject research law of relation
2.3 Understanding and conclusions regarding studies in phenomenon • (1) , one has no stereotype, not applies the theory of the theory mechanically, master the method with essential phenomenon. • (2) , the phenomena of priori proposed are studied, Ji can dissolve the academic crisis of Europe. • (3) , the final purpose of studying in moustache match phenomenon, lie in setting up a strict scientific knowledge system. • (4) , put emphasis on, ask all own and waiting and seeing instead. • (5) , the trap that don't fall into the self-contradiction.
2.4.1 Taiwan inherits China‘s orthodox calligraphy • Since China's Mainland, pursue, use simplified Chinese character, to make word principle Chinese character, destruction totally, fortunately in Taiwan, we act on the Chinese cultural tradition, use the roman word that history passed on, enable the centre blood vessels of Chinese culture, can extend.
2.4.2 Chinese words are graceful and their figures are various • 1. There are various styles of Chinese characters. • 2. The internationalization of Chinese calligraphy • 3, Chinese calligraphy stresses the romantic charm • 4,A handsome calligraphy writing makes one rich and come to the front
2.4.3 Each dynasty had different calligraphy styles • People in Jin Dynasty liked calligraphy for the lasting attraction • people in Tang Dynasty liked calligraphy of rules of writing • people in Song Dynasty liked calligraphy of artistic conception • people in Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty liked the posture of the calligraphy. • people in Qing Dynasty paid special attention to the rubbing from a stone inscription.
2.4.4 Complicated factors are involved in the calligraphy styles in a specific dynasty One piece books of era wind, it is it depend on by strengths personal only can about,need periods getting longer in ferment transform into naturally.
2.4.5 The course of calligraphy development in Taiwan
The dawn of Taiwan style of calligraphy（1662-1735） Roughly in will it be last years Ming Dynasty, Zheng Cheng-gong for being ' instead clear to regain one's sight ', regard Taiwan as base area, therefore bring some aides and staff, these aides and staff, a lot of pass government's strict examination, they are certainly good hands who write calligraphy, Zheng Cheng-gong's calligraphy, there is one's own special too. Can say Taiwan dark for culture, bring a bright lamp of culture.
The early period for Taiwan to accept the orthodox Chinese calligraphy art（1683-1895） Cover Qianlong imperial court in this period, until Emperor Guang Xu, while ceding Taiwan to Japan. Unless Taiwanese the rich, in it have too the department one, it last pieces of prosperous calligraphy wind towards. Combine with, China former tour official, with artistic appreciation of them, book the rumour is getting about enter Central Plains, have irrigated the field of the calligraphy of Taiwan.
The period that integrated Japanese style to the Taiwan style of calligraphy（1895-1949） Japanese book one, originally influenced by China and very deep, their characters, are hit Chinese word and changed too, it is long, still have some changes, i.e. the so-called Japanese wind with the Chinese calligraphy style. Taiwan is their colony, Japan forces Taiwanese to approve their culture with the advantage, on the wind in the book, integrate a little taste of Japan more or less.
Inheritor of China's orthodox calligraphy（1945-1976） China's Mainland simplify characters in an all-round way, hit Chinese word beautiful, totally destruction, make their scholar, because can not understand the ancient book, and enable research work slowly, our Taiwan uses ' the roman word ', so Taiwan is the inheritor of China's orthodox calligraphy.
Entering a new era of calligraphy art in Taiwan（1987-） • In every eras, there is a calligraphy style taken the place of at that time. In since 1987, the government claimed to lift a curfew, the yardstick of the thought, speech was greatly relaxed, like visiting the sea, freely. • In so fine an environment, we expect, must create a unique calligraphy style. So I call this era: Era of ' the new look of new exhibition of entering happening anciently '.
2.5 Review of Related Studies
(1) The environment is disadvantageous to the implementation of calligraphy education The calligraphy is developed, the greatest puzzlement, the intervention from political strength and good factor of academic environment faced at present.
Political intervention • ( 1) , in the implementation simplified Chinese character of China's Mainland • ( 2) , the thinking of Taiwanese ruler ' goes to China '
The academic environment is not good • ( 1) , educational course of school calligraphy is not paid attention to • ( 2) , teachers have insufficient speciality • ( 3) , the teaching material is unsatisfactory • ( 4) , the government seldom holds the calligraphy match • ( 5) , the funds are fallen short and distributed unevenly • ( 6) , the tradition writes the declining of the method • ( 7) , the social personage exhibits the field insufficiently • ( 8) , subject of calligraphy exchange horn, loss more and more, population of calligraphy,
(2) The idea of Professor Zhang Bing-Huang's calligraphy education • The calligraphy is that anyone can study the successful one. • The advantage of advocating studying the calligraphy is numerous. • It is orthodox that the attitude toward calligraphy education insists on Chinese characters, but teaching method, should be with era and progress.
Professor Zhang Bing Huang’s Methods in calligraphy education • The Natural Approach • Teaching method of Suzuki • Probing into type teaching method • Colony teaching method • Taking one steps forward must be examined twice method • Auspicious lucky teaching method of school of Europe (Lois Malaguzzi School Teaching) • These methods, on the teaching applicable each time at the same time, but see the situation ' teach students in accordance with their aptitude '.
(3) The practice of Professor Zhang Bing-Huang's calligraphy education • 1,The teaching method is being improved constantly, keep up with changing times. • 2,Restore classical rubbing from a stone inscription of China, substantiate the teaching material. • 3,The book with great concentration sets forth one's views, for reader's reference. • 4,Creating the book will combine the people having a common goal, become the writing style luxuriantly. • 5,Ten thousand people open the pen at the beginning of the year, the joyous festival of calligraphy circles • 6,Hold the calligraphy match to improve and write? Will • 7,Make arrangements for ' the annual exhibition of the calligraphy of Taiwan ', the type moulds the Taiwanese book wind. • 8,Train calligraphy teachers, transmit the burning incense. • 9,Open the boundary and open up the soil for the calligraphy of Taiwan, increase the influence. • 10,The text raises the disposition, the calligraphies of the whole people of the advocacy • 11,Make arrangements for the scientific seminar in order to improve the book and pays attention to accomplishment
Chapter 4. The Conceptual Framework
(1) The conceptual framework for the study of Chinese calligraphy education is based on the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. • It is very deep that the moustache match is influenced by flute card, maintain that should hold the attitude suspected in everything, until finding the truth. • Treat the things, do not change because of knowing, the stream of consciousness of the subject, all puts brackets, priori leaves the question open. • Subject use, put method that bracket leave the question open, make objective knowledge, just as it, appear, take notice of, know structure, complement with essence ocular method, come, find out about life essence of object of world.
From the above conclusion, the following diagram illustrates the logic structure of the study.
（2）Procedure of study • According to the conceptual structure described above, the materials obtained will be deduced, analyzed, compared, and summarized to put forward the preliminary views for further discussion. If there are doubtful points in the finding, more data will be searched for verification according to phenomenon study of Husserl. After the doubtful places are clarified, the drafting of the dissertation will be started. • In the course of the writing, I would keep close contact with the counselors. More attention will be paid to the details; even the addition and deletion, retouching of characters, will be double checked over and over again until the conclusions are reached.