Family: Psittacidae. By: Erin Moloney. Cacatuinae (cockatoos, galahs, and cockatiels). Psittacidae (parrots, parakeets, macaws, lovebirds, and budgerigars). Psittrichadinae (psequet’s parrot). Loriculus (hanging parrots). Micropsittinae (Australian pygmy parrots).
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Family: Psittacidae By: Erin Moloney
Cacatuinae (cockatoos, galahs, and cockatiels) Psittacidae (parrots, parakeets, macaws, lovebirds, and budgerigars) Psittrichadinae (psequet’s parrot) Loriculus (hanging parrots) Micropsittinae (Australian pygmy parrots) Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Nestorinae (kaka and kea) Strigopinae (kakapo) Psittacidae Phylogeny
Distribution • approximately 330 extant species and 15 extinct • primarily restricted to the southern hemisphere • habitat: tropical and subtropical
Identification brightly colored relatively short neck large robust bill psittacofulvins: unique color pigment in parrots zygodactyl feet prehensile tongue
Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) length: 100cm weight 1.5 to 2kg native to South America (Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay) Pygmy Parrots (genus: Micropsitta) length: 8cm weight: 65g native to New Guinea 6 species Size Range
Natural History • relatively long life span • lorikeets – 20+ years • macaws – 70+ years • mainly herbivorous • seeds, fruits, nuts, nectar, etc. • occasionally will consume grubs and insect larvae • consume clay – neutralizes acidity in food • predators – hawks, eagles, falcons, snakes, mustelids, cats, etc.
Breeding monogamous - usually for life cavity nesters female incubates eggs while male brings food altricial chicks biparental care Social flocks of up to thousands bright colors help group cohesion visual and auditory communication Behavior eclectus chick cockatoo chicks
Intelligence • Intelligence and emotional state of a 3-5 year old child • communication capability of a 2-3 year old child • capable of • mimicry • communication • intelligent play • tool making • counting • differentiation
Irene – wanted to understand how birds’ minds worked purchased Alex in 1972 – Chicago pet store learned over 100 words could count to 7 would ask for things – food, walks, etc. could differentiate and describe shape, color, size, and number of objects Alex and Irene Pepperberg Alex intelligence video
Thick-billed Parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) distribution originally: southern Arizona and New Mexico to Venezuela currently: Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains in northern Mexico habitat: high elevation coniferous forest Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) native distribution: eastern United States habitat: deciduous forests and forest edges extinct by 1920s habitat destruction agricultural pest over hunting for feathers North American Parrots
Thick-Billed Parrots • causes of decline • habitat loss • over hunting • pet trade • conservation • 1983: reintroduction in southern Arizona • organizations pay landowners NOT to log forests (The Wetlands Project and The Wildlife Preservation Trust International)
released pets success due to… earlier sexual maturity no natural predators can have two chicks at a time problematic pests threaten native species damage agriculture populations London – rose necked parakeets (Psitacula krameri) 1983: 500 today: 10,000 Florida – 2800+ monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) Chicago – 150 monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) Phoenix - ~2000 peach-faced lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) Feral Parrots
Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) popular pet during 1960s 1968-1972: over 64,000 parakeets were imported into the US for the pet trade 1967: 35,000 feral parakeets 1972: feral populations East Coast through Mid-West and California eradication programs: 4,000 to 5,000 parakeets removed in New York, New Jersey, Virginia, and California Feral Parrots – Monk Parakeets
Habitat Destruction increasing human populations deforestation logging ranching Over harvesting hunted feathers crop destruction pet trade Natural History monogamous for life slow maturity rate one clutch / year small clutch sizes 1/3 of Neotropical parrots are endangered almost all parrot species listed on CITES Appendix I or II Threats
parrots can be sold for $200 to $10,000 each ~ 800,000 parrot chicks are removed from the wild each year 75% mortality rate – stress, disease, rough handling, crushing, dehydration, etc. 1998-2000: over 1 million parrots traded worldwide US imports declining 1990: 150,000 today: 17,000 US-Mexico border significant smuggling point Pet Trade
United States Efforts 25 listed by the U.S. Endangered Species Act Wild Bird Conservation Act – 1992 prohibits import of wild parrots except countries with approved management and conservation Conservation International Efforts • CITES • 40 on Appendix I • all other parrot species on Appendixes II or III • cockatiels and budgerigars not regulated • IUCN Red Listed Species • 95 species listed
References • Allaby, M. “Psittacidae”. Dictionary of Zoology. 1999. Oxford University Press. Accessed 18 Mar. 2008. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8-Psittacidae.html>. • “Birds: Thick-billed Parrot”. Animal Bytes. 2008. San Diego Zoo. Accessed 19 Mar. 2008. <http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-thick-billed_parrot.html>. • “Carolina Parakeet”. All About Birds. 2007. Cornell Ornithology Lab. Accessed 18 Mar. 2008. <http://www.birds.cornell.edu/AllAboutBirds/conservation/extinctions/ carolina_parakeet>. • Ehrlich, D., Dobkins, D., and Wheye, D. “Feral Birds”. Birds of Stanford. 1988. Standford University. Accessed 25 Mar. 2008. <http://www.stanford.edu/group/ stanfordbirds/text/essays/Feral_Birds.html>. • Owen, J. “Feral Parrot Population Soars in U.K., Study Says”. National Geographic News. 8 July 2004. National Geographic Society. Accessed 22 Mar. 2008. <http:// news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0708_040708_feralparrots.html>. • “Parrot Trade”. Wildlife Trade. 2008. World Wildlife Fund. Accessed 28 Mar. 2008. <http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/faqs_parrot.cfm>. • “Pet Trade Dangers: Poaching Major Threat to Parrots”. Science Daily. 31 May 2001. Accessed 25 Mar. 2008. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/05 /010529234701.htm>. • Roberson, D. “Parrots Psittacidae”. Bird Families of the World. 20 Feb. 2008. Creagrus at Monterey Bay. Accessed 18 Mar. 2008. <http://montereybay.com/creagrus/parrots.html>. • “Thick-billed Parrot”. 2002. National Audubon Society. Accessed 18 Mar. 2008. <http://audubon2.org/watchlist/viewSpecies.jsp?id=204>.
CLASSIFICATION Hummingbirds are in the order Apodiformes, meaning “without feet” The Order consist of 3 Families: -Hemiprocmidae (Tree swifts) -Apodidae (Swifts) -Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Trochilidae 325-340 species of Hummingbirds
Geographic Range Hummingbirds are only found in the New World in the Neoarctic and Neotropics. Most species are found in the tropical and subtropical region
Anatomical Features Hummingbirds have characteristically small feet. Family includes the smallest bird in the world- Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae ) Have taken flight to extreme! Wingbeats range 70-80 beats per second in small hummers, 10-15 beats for giant hummers Long slender bill
Feeding habits Hummingbirds are nectivores and insectivores Specialization has co-evolved with certain hummingbirds and flowers Hummingbirds will also feed on sap during scarce times
Reproduction Hummingbirds are polygynous Birds will breed during peak season of nectar Only females are involved in parenting Clutch size average are 2 eggs Atricial chicks
Response to climate change -Some species of hummingbirds migrate while others move toward higher elevations in response to seasonal changes -Rufous hummingbird has been documented to fly distances of more than 5000 miles round trip! -Torpor is used in some hummingbirds to save energy during low temperature conditions
Hummingbirds found in Az Black- chinned Hummingbird Anna’s Hummingbird Rufous Hummingbird Costa’s Hummingbird Broad-tailed Hummingbird