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Dorosoma cepedianum gizzard shad. Natasha Schuchmann. Dorosoma cepedianum. Identification: Herring body Long, last dorsal fin ray Large, dark spot on shoulder in younger fish

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dorosoma cepedianum gizzard shad

Dorosoma cepedianumgizzard shad

Natasha Schuchmann

dorosoma cepedianum
Dorosoma cepedianum
  • Identification:
    • Herring body
    • Long, last dorsal fin ray
    • Large, dark spot on shoulder in younger fish
    • Silvery blue with shiny white belly
    • No lateral line
    • 52-70 lateral scales, 10-13 dorsal rays
dorosoma cepedianum3
Dorosoma cepedianum
  • Distribution:
    • Most of Iowa
dorosoma cepedianum4
Dorosoma cepedianum
  • Habitat:
    • Deep, open rivers and lakes with soft bottom
  • Diet:
    • Omnivorous filter feeder
      • Phytoplankton and zooplankton
  • Reproduction:
    • 400,000 eggs
    • Prefer sandy and rocky substrate for spawning
    • No care of young
dorosoma cepedianum5

Competition for sport fish

Little food or commercial value

Used as bait

Conservation Status:

Abundant, stable numbers

Dorosoma cepedianum

dorosoma cepedianum6
Dorosoma cepedianum
  • References:
    • Berra, Tim M., Freshwater Fish Distribution. San Diego: Academic Press, 2001.
    • Morris, Christina. “Dorosoma cepedianum.” Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 28 Sept. 2004 <http://


    • Page, Lawrence M., and Brooks M. Burr. Peterson Field Guides: Freshwater Fishes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.
goldeye hiodon alosoides chris gelner
Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides)Chris Gelner
  • Identification: dark-blue to blue-green sides, silver belly with sharp keel, large scales
  • Similar Species: Mooneye, origin of dorsal fin is in front of origin of anal fin
  • Distribution: inhabits larger streams in western southern and southeastern Iowa where it is considered rare; rarely found in Mississippi river

Iowa DNR

goldeye hiodon alosoides
Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides)
  • Habitat: quiet slow moving waters of large rivers and muddy shallows of large lakes
  • Diet: nocturnal opportunistic carnivore, aquatic insect larvae, fish, worms, snails, waterfleas, sideswimmers, terrestrial insects, frogs, mice, shrews

Mississippi River Resource Page

goldeye hiodon alosoides9
Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides)
  • Reproduction: male and female spawn at 3 years old when water reaches 10 degrees C. Females can release 5,000-25,000 semi-floating eggs
  • Conservation status: although uncommon not listed as threatened because of its wide distibution

Charting Nature

Breck P. Kent

goldeye hiodon alosoides10
Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides)
  • Economic value: low, few anglers target goldeye, important as a sport fish and commercially in Canada
  • Ecological value: probably unimportant due to its low numbers
goldeye hiodon alosoides11
Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides)
  • Common names: goldeye, slicker, webechee, norhtern mooneye, toothed herring, shad mooneye, mooneye, yellow herring…
  • State Record: 2 pounds, 4 ounces, Des Moines River, June 1992

Frank Bosemeyer

references hiodon alosoides
References: Hiodon alosoides

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Iowa DNR Fish and Fishing. Available at September 2004.

Mayhew, J. 1987. Iowa Fish and Fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Fishes of Minnesota. Available at September 2004.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

mooneye hiodon tergisus kate walker
Mooneye (Hiodon tergisus)Kate Walker
  • Identification: large eye; dorsal fin origin located in front of anal fin origin; teeth prominent on both jaws, tongue and roof of mouth; cycloid scales
  • Distribution: large river drainages across Iowa-Mississippi, Missouri and Des Moines Rivers

Pictures from:

hiodon tergisus
Hiodon tergisus
  • Habitat: prefer swift, clean water; non-silted conditions
  • Diet: young-plankton; adult-insects, mollusks, crayfish, and small fish
  • Reproduction: spawning is random in April and May (in shallow waters); females produce 10,000-20,000 eggs; eggs covered in a gelatinous material 1999/Wabash/mooneye.jpg

hiodon tergisus15
Hiodon tergisus
  • Conservation status: neither endangered or threatened
  • Economical/Recreational Importance: neither valued for food or sport
  • Ecological Importance: contribute to forage fish populations
  • Other: state record; spirited catch; appearance similar to herrings; other names

  • Natural Resources. 1994. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. Available at Iowa Department of September 28
  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Iowa’s threatened and endangered species. Available at September 26
  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2003. Mooneye Fact Sheet. Available at ooneye.html. September 26
  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.


Northern Pike (Esox Lucius)

Becky Olerich

Identification: elongated fish with long head depress forward into pair duck billed jaws; canine teeth usually bluish-green with irregular yellow or gold spots on sides; cheek fully scaled lower half opercle scales; 10 plus pounds and 3 to 4 ft.

Distribution: Found world wide; upper 2/3 of Iowa larger lakes and rivers

Habitat: sluggish heavily vegetated areas

Iowa DNR


Northern Pike (Esox Lucius)

Diet: young insects, larvae

adults perch, drum,

small suckers, sunfish,

smaller pike

predatory fish

large pike eat anything

Reproduction: mid-march;

random spawners;

63,000 to 500,000 eggs

laid depending on size;

take female until 3rd year

in life to reach sexual


Conservation status: abundant in right lake

Iowa is maintaining the population

population biggest ever been in spirit lake

Canada Outfitters


Northern Pike (Esox Lucius)

Economic and recreational importance:

big game fish

Stocked in some lakes 5 2inch

fingerlings per acre

Ecological importance: species is a

predator does not effect the population that much; tolerant to pollution very sensitive to warm water take fairly low oxygen

Other: names common pike, northern jack fish, pickerel

State record 25 pounds 5 ounces west Okoboji

there is close season on fishing pike in west and east Okoboji and spirit lake from Feb.15 to May 2 daily bag limit is 3 with a possession of 6 Boundy rivers open year round bag limit 5 possession 10 except Big Sioux bag 6 possession 12

Canada Outfitters


References: Esox Lucius

Canada Outfitters. Available at

Iowa Department of Natural Resources.1194. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing

Available at

Mayhew, J. 1987. Iowa Fish and Fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources,

Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

Miller, Lannie. Fisheries Biologist. Iowa Department of Natural Resources,

Lake View, Iowa personal communication. September 28, 2004.


Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy )

Identification: olive to dark gray above, sides lighter with dark spots or bars; upper 1/2 of cheeks and opercle lightly scaled, lower 1/2 of both scaleless; Six or more pores on underside of jaw

By Chris Nickell

Picture from Iowa DNR

Habitat: Muskellunge normally live in lakes and slow-moving rivers with clear water and numerous underwater weed beds.. Muskies most often reside in water less than 4.5 m (15 ft) deep.


Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy )

Diet: Fish, Ducks, Muskrats for adults, Larval Muskies eat waterfleas and copepods but add fish at around 2 inches.

Reproduction: 10,000 to 225,000 eggs depending on size and health, Hatch in 8 to 14 days. Attach to vegetation using adhesive organ on head. Develop mouth and fins over 1-2 weeks, then swim free.

Picture from Minnesota DNR


Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy )

Distribution: has been stocked regularly into Brushy Creek, Hawthorn Lake, Pleasant Creek, Big Creek, Three Mile, Clear Lake, West Okoboji, and Big Spirit. Muskies can also be found in East Okoboji, Upper Gar, Lower Gar, and Lake Minnewashta. Muskies were also stocked in Lake Macbride in 1993, and some individuals are still being caught there.

Picture from Ohio DNR

Conservation: Unlisted but Stocked annually into certain lakes.


Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy )

Economic/ recreational value: Important as game fish

Ecological importance: Important as a predator fish in keeping numbers down in smaller prey fish

Picture from University of Michigan Museum of Zoology


Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy )

  • Other: Are solely carnivorous, ambush predators
  • AKA: Musky, Muskie, Wisconsin Musky, Purebred Musky, Fish of 10,000 casts
  • State Record – 52” @ 50 pounds, 6 ounces

Picture from Minnesota DNR


References:Esox masquinongy

Iowa department of natural resources. 1994. Iowa DNR Fish and fishing. available at September 2004

Mayhew, J. 1987. Iowa Fish and Fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Fishes of Minnesota. Available at: , September 2004.

Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Wildlife Division. Fishing. Available at September 2004.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology . Lepisosteus osseus. Available at . htmlSeptember 2004


The TigerMusky

By Nathan Wilhelm

Other Names: Normie, Silver Northern

Esox masquinongy

(Male Muskellunge)


Esox lucius

(Female Northern Pike)

Hybrid =



  • Long Cylindrical Body
  • Olive to Dark Grey
  • Tiger Markings on Side
  • Jaws Shape Like Duckbill
  • Many, Prominent Teeth
  • Dorsal Fin Located Far Back
  • Cheek/Gill Characteristics of a Northern Pike
  • Body Characteristics of a Musky


Distinguishing From Northern Pike

  • Easily Differentiated
  • Northern Pikes Have Light Bean-Shaped Spots
  • Tiger Muskies Have Dark Verticle Stripes and Spots

Muskies, Not So Easy!


Distinguishing From Musky

Fin Ray Counts Not Helpful

Tiger Musky: Darker Brown Markings

Rounded Fins

Cheek and Upper Half of Gill Scaled

Similar to Barred Musky Strain

Musky: Lighter Brown Markings

Pointed Fins

Only Upper Half of Cheek and Gill Scaled

Multiple Strains



  • 34 Stocked Lakes in 1984
  • Over 800,000 Fish Stocked
  • No longer Regularly Stocked
  • Habitat
  • Large,Clean Lakes and Rivers with Shallow Feeding Areas and Deeper Cool Areas
  • Prefer Weeds, Logs for Cover When Feeding

Carnivorous Diet

  • Fish Hatchery: Prepared Foods or Zooplankton as Fry, Then Fish
  • In the Wild: Mainly Fish - Frogs – Small Mammals – Water Fowl
  • Reproduction
  • Can Occur Naturally From Northern Pike and Muskellunge, but Need Stocking to be Sustained
  • Usually Created in Hatcheries by Fertilization of Northern Pike Eggs By Muskellunge
  • Tiger Muskies Are Sterile, Except for Females Occasionally

History and Conservation Status

  • 1965 First Hybrid at Spirit Lake Hatchery Created
  • 1978 Released Into 9 Southern Iowa Lakes
  • 1983 Occupying 27 Lakes
  • 1984 34 Iowa Lakes
  • State Record at 27 lbs. and 2 ounce, From West Okoboji Lake
  • No Regular DNR Stocking in Iowa
  • Season open all year except in West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake, Spirit Lake(closed February 15 to May 20)
  • The daily bag limit is 1 fish
  • The possession limit is 1 fish
  • Fish must be at least 40 in.


  • Important Game Fish Where They Are Found
  • Grow Faster Than Northern Pike and Muskellunge
  • More Apt to Strike Than a Muskellunge
  • Grows Larger Than a Northern Pike
  • Aggressive Fighters

Ecological Significance

  • Most are Sterile so Population Easily Managed
  • At the Top of Food Chain When Adults
  • Piscivore: Can Help Keep Populations of Smaller Fish in Check


Burr, Brooks M. and Lawerence M. Page. 1991. Peterson field guides. Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Mifflin Company. Pp. 61,62.

Discover the outdoors. Species locater: Tiger musky. Found at

Mayhew, J. (editor). 1987. Iowa Fish and Fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp. Found at

Minnesota muskie farm. Fish species. 1998-2004. Found at