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Astronomy & Indian Astrology or Is Astrology a Science?. At the outset, a historical-societal PSM (rather than “rationalist”) perspective :.
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or Is Astrology
The ancient Indian Astronomy used concepts like Nakshatra, Tithi and so on but not Rasi chakra.
Even the ‘Vedanga Jyothisha’ of Lagadha, of around ~10th C. BC, does not give any such indication.
Thus, astrology, which began as an observational science, gradually turned into a pseudo science and by the 4th C.BC, when Alexander conquered Babylonia, the superstitions had reached its zenith.
Predictive Astrology gradually spread to Greece and Rome. It was Baroses, a Chaldian priest, who first started a school of astrology in Athens.
Brihat Jaatakam lists the twelve signs of Zodiac (Rasi). The names are very similar to that of Greek name.
Even technical terms like declination (aapoklima) horizon (harija) diameter (Jaamitra) Angle (Kona). Further scholars identify the author of Paulisha Siddhanta, an astrological text with that of Paulus Alexandrinus.
In his work he explains how Solar eclipse occur due to obstruction by moon. He does not even refer to the Puranic myth of Ragu and Ketu.
..But then why India is plagued by astrology?
The stars against which it moves are grouped into 12 Zodiac constellations – or RasisPATH OF SUN
Apparent position of Sun against a particular constellation is the Rasi..
is a lunar day, or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the moon and the sun to increase by 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours. There are 30 tithis in each lunar month.
The position of moon each day in its orbit aginst a prominat star is called the nakshatra or lunar mansion. There are 27 nakshtras
Moon takes about 27.3 days to go around Earth once.
Shani, Guru, Mangal, Ravi, Shukra, Budha, Chandra…. Is in order of the speed at which they appear to move…
In like manner, weekday order: Sun, Mon, Tue… flows
Every day is 24 parts called “hours” (hora). The successive hours are governed by the celestial bodies in the above given order. After every governing the first hour of the day lent its name to that day. For example, if you start from Shani as the planet governing the first hour, that day is Shanivaara (Saturday).The fourth planet from Shani in the given order is Ravi (the Sun) whose name is lent to the next day as Ravivaara (Sunday). Then, the fourth planet from Ravi is Chandra and hence the next day is named after Chandra (the Moon) as Somavaara (Monday), Soma being a synonym for Chandra.
Karnam is half of a Tithi. Like day and night of solar day, Karnam is two half of lunar day. One Karana equals 6 degree difference between Moon and Sun.
angular relationship between Sun and Moon. It is total of the solar and lunar longitude. One Yoga equals 13 degrees:20 minutes. There are 27 Yogas in 360 degrees.
This has no real ‘physical meaning’… This has only astrological significance.
Position of heavenly objects can be recorded against zodiac
Jupiter in Taurus
Venus in Gemini
Mars in Pisces
Moon in Pisces
Mercury in Scorpio
This is the basis of Kundali… it records the position of celestial objects at the time of Birth
Saturn in Libra
Mangal in Kanya
Raising Rasi- Kanya- Lagna
Budha in Thula
Shani in Karkataka
Sun in Vrichika
Guru in Mithina
Shukra in Dhanus
Chandra in Meena
Position of Planets, Moon and Sun as seen from Earth.. In Kundali format
Jathagam… South Indian style
Ragu and Saturn in Meenam
Kumbam is the ascending rasi
Venus in Mesham
Moon in Danush
Sun, Mars and Mercury in Rishab
Ketu in Kanni
Jupiter in Simham
Actually the path of all planets including Neptune and Uranus passes through 13 constellations!
Indian Astrology is Earth centered, epicycle based astrology. Ucham and Neecham is the high and low point of the planets as they go in epicycle.
Movement of the earth’s axis (with a period of 24,000 years) has gradually shifted which sign of the Zodiac the sun is in each month.
Explanation: “not a science like… physics… requiring strict adherence to… reasoning and… logic”!
[AND] “cannot be simply based on strict… principles… but a certain amount of intuitive capacity [called for]…”
Planets like Jupiter and Saturn are visible in the night