Community Lead Natural Resource Management and Conservation in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region
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Community Lead Natural Resource Management and Conservation in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region Processes, Impacts and Lessons Learned. Project “Conservation and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources” Gobi Component. Objective. Project Region.

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Community Lead Natural Resource Management and Conservation in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

Processes, Impacts and Lessons Learned


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Project in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region“Conservation and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources”

Gobi Component

Objective

Project Region

To enable local communities to use and conserve natural resources sustainably - in close cooperation with government agencies and the private sector

Implemented by

Funded by

New Zealand Nature Institute Initiative for People Centered Conservation

German Technical Assistance


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Natural Resources and Conservation Values in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

ecological, natural history and cultural, human history


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Gobi Gurvan Saikhan in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

-The Three Beauties of the Gobi-

National Park

Wildlife (Argali, Ibex, Snow Leopard)

Endemic Plants

Paleontological Sites

Desert and Semi-Desert Ecosystem


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Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

Cultural Landscape Cultural and Spiritual Values Prehistoric and Historic Sites

Livestock Genetic Resources

Traditional Resource Management Systems


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  • Strategy in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

  • Facilitating Community Organization and Stakeholder Consensus on sustainable, collaborative management of NR

  • Strengthening local institutions and collaboration

  • Developing enabling policy framework

Approach

Participatory

People centered

Process oriented


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Recognizing in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

Local/traditional knowledge and resource management systems

Potential contribution of nomadic livestock herders to conservation

Local communities as rightsholders to resources

Need for new concepts of Protected Area Management


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Participatory Learning and Action in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Regionfor Project Design, Implementation and Evaluation

  • Facilitating analysis of problems and opportunities

  • Understanding local livelihoods and local peoples’ perceptions

  • Facilitating community initiatives, mobilizing local potential


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Facilitating Analysis of: in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

Natural Resources – uses and trends

Socio Economy – livelihood analysis

Institutions and Conflicts

Problems and Opportunities


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Participatory Analysis - Findings in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

Lack of coordination and weak (government) institutions for sustainable resource use, and of effective conservation


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Perceived lack of community institutions for resource management and coordinating herders movements

Self-Help to improve NRM and Livelihoods


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Challenges management and coordinating herders movements

Increase in herding households and livestock in 1990s

Massive losses of livestock and livelihoods in early 2000s

  • Private herds on state owned, collectively used land

  • Young Institutions for Resource and Park Management


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Challenges management and coordinating herders movements

  • Mongolia’s grasslands (and Protected Areas) are a vast

  • territory to manage

  • Spatial and temporal variability of non-equilibrium

  • ecosystem requires local and collective management,

  • and mobility


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Community Based and Collaborative Management management and coordinating herders movementsof Natural Resources in Mongolia

Opportunities

Long history of common property resources and local resource management.

Tribal organization and large tribal herds.

Pasture resource management (of allocated territories) by local herder groups since 13th century.

Traditional knowledge on livestock and grazing management.


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Self-help to improve sustainable Resource Use + Livelihoods management and coordinating herders movements

Emergence of Community Organizations

Based on customary institutions and norms, adapting to new socio-economic and political framework


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Strengthening Community Organizations management and coordinating herders movements

Success Factors – Lessons Learned by Community Leaders

  • Community has agreed on and established:

  • Leader and Council

  • Objectives and Norms

  • Community Fund and Community Center

Elders support the Initiative

of Younger People

Men are supportive of Women who lead community activities


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Success Factors of Community Leadership management and coordinating herders movements

Leaders and Council members :

“Act transparent and accountable”

“Facilitate joint decision making”

“Respect everybody’s opinion”

“Include and support poor households”

“Organize social activities”

Community Organizations learn about

and practice Principles of Good Governance


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Currently, over 70 Community Organizations active in 3 provinces (Aimags)

  • Scaling up through self-organization.

  • Community Organizations in some districts (Sums) established umbrella organizations (associations).

  • Community Organizations are registering as legal entities.

  • Accepted by local government as local institutions for NRM.

“Functional Participation”


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Impacts of provinces (Aimags)Community Organization

Environmental

Economic

Social


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The Economic and Environmental Impacts provinces (Aimags)

of Community Organization and Collective Actionas perceived by local communities

“Living standard of families has improved”

“Jobs were created for unemployed women”

“Pasture land is used properly”

“Use of trees and bushes as fuel wood has decreased”

“Illegal taking of falcons has decreased”


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The Social Impacts provinces (Aimags)

of Community Organization and Collective Actionas perceived by local communities

“Other organizations are interested to cooperate with us”

“Equality (of rural women) with men and city women has increased”

“Education of community members has improved”

“It became easier to receive health service”

“Communities can influence the government”


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Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation provinces (Aimags)

Community-defined Indicators to measure Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts

Planning Tool for Community Activities


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Community Managed Area provinces (Aimags)

Contracting with local government

Resource rightsand management responsibility to Community Organization

Commitment to alternative fuel/dungstoves, and to protection of bushes

Community rangers

Community Pasture Management Norms


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Community Pasture Management Norms provinces (Aimags)

  • Rotational grazing

  • Agreements on moving dates

  • Reserving winter pastures

  • Educating, and negotiating with

  • outsiders

  • Mutual support in preparing winter

  • camps and in risk management


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Local Appropriate Technology provinces (Aimags)Development to save Fuel Wood

Fuel efficient dung stoves

Solar energy

Briquettes and presses


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Peoples’ Strategies for Sustainable Livelihoods provinces (Aimags)

Collective Action

Value Addition

Income Diversification

Credits to Households from Community Funds


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Changes in regulatory and institutional framework - introduced or under discussion

  • Recognition of Community Organizations as NRM institutions

  • Contracting with Community Organizations to transfer land/resource rights

  • Tax incentives for collective action on sustainable NRM and conservation

  • Create position of “Community Organizer”in local government ?

  • Introduction of new Protected Area category “Community Conserved Area” ?


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Lessons Learned introduced or under discussion

Community organization has triggered better governance

through experiential learning about good governance

while building strong community organizations

Communities have a voice and are recognized partners


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Lessons Learned introduced or under discussion

The poorest households have driven development of strong community organizations

The poorest communities contributed most to resource conservation and restoration


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Lessons Learned introduced or under discussion

Women have taken a leading role in organization and facilitation


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Support Strategy introduced or under discussion

Developing Human and Institutional Capacity

Skills for Value Addition and Income Diversification

Facilitation and Management Skills

Organizational Development


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Support Strategy introduced or under discussion

Facilitating Experience Sharing and Community Exchanges

Building linkages - locally, nationally, internationally


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Thank you for your attention introduced or under discussion

New Zealand Nature Institute Initiative for People Centered Conservation

Tungalag, Mongolia