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Human Resource Management (HRM). What? the functional area of an organization that is responsible for all aspects of hiring and supporting employees (e.g., providing and administering employee benefits).

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human resource management hrm
Human Resource Management (HRM)

What?

  • the functional area of an organization that is responsible for all aspects of hiring and supporting employees (e.g., providing and administering employee benefits).
  • all the activities related to the recruitment, hiring, training, promotion, retention, separation, and support of employees.
  • functions within a company that relate to people.

Why?

  • is the effective use of human resources in order to enhance organisational performance.
  • the process of evaluating human resource needs, finding people to fill those needs, and getting the best work from each employee by providing the right incentives and job environment, all with the goal of meeting the needs of the firm.
  • applying human resources within complex systems such that people succeed, performance improves, and human error decreases.

(Source: web definitions for HRM)

effects of hrm
Effects of HRM
  • HRM-practices (especially job design and selection/ appraisal/training) better predict company performance than R&D, QM, strategy and technology (West, 2001)
  • Empowerment better predicts company performance than technology-based management practices (Patterson et al., 2004)
  • HRM-practices as cause and effect of company performance (Guest et al., 2003)
road map for both hrm classes work process design leading teams

Task /

Work process

Personnel selection

Satisfaction

Motivation

Personnel development

Organization as socio-technical system

Performance

Performance appraisal / Pay

Leadership

Team

Road map for both HRM classes (Work process design, Leading teams)
organization of course
Organization of course
  • 3 ETCS points (approx. 75-90 work hours).
  • Besides the lecture, the prerequisite for credits points and exam participation is the completion of a semester project in groups of 4 students.
  • Topic of semester project: Analysis and assessment of job and organizational design in a company including a written report and feedback to the company.
  • The exam is written (1.5 hours; open book) and takes place the 2./3. Week of January. Overall grade: 50% project & 50% exam.
  • Material for the lecture at www.oat.ethz.ch.
semester project
Semester project
  • Assessment of job and organizational design in a company based on two instruments
    • work system analysis (focus on work processes and handling of disturbances in the processes)
    • job analysis (focus on criteria for humane work)
  • Analyses involve 2-3 interviews with managers and employees and .5 - 1 day observation of work tasks and processes
  • To be carried out in groups of four either in a company of your choice or in a company provided
  • Please send an e-mail to Jacqueline Hohermuth by Sept. 30 (jhohermuth@ethz.ch) with the names and e-mail addresses of the four people in your group, indicating also if you want us to provide a company and whether you can conduct the analyses in English and/or German
required reading
Required reading

Copies of the texts will be availabe during the lecture on Oct. 9 (CHF 10)

psychology

Development,

Learning

Person

Experience/

Behavior

Situation

Dispositions

Perception

Cognition

Problem solving

Emotions

Motivation

Action regulation

Physical and social

environment

Psychology
  • Describing, explaining, predicting and changing of human experience and behavior
work and organizational psychology
Work and organizational psychology

Psychologically founded theories, methods and solutions for the effective and humane interaction between people, techologies and organization in order to reach individual and organizational goals

methods psychology as natural and social science
Methods: Psychology as natural and social science
  • Methods in natural sciences
    • Experiment as core paradigm = controlled variation of conditions in order to test their effects
  • Characteristics of social science research
    • Control of complexity
      • Constraints on manipulation of study conditions
      • Studying "hypothetical constructs"
      • Limited possibilities for reduction of complexity
    • Studies with humans
      • Effects through researcher / researched individual and social embeddedness
      • Ethical principles
  • Action research
    • Researchers and „researchees“ as subjects in a shared process of social change
hrm from a work and organizational psychology perspective
HRM from a work and organizational psychology perspective
  • Scientific foundation for HRM tools
  • HRM as a function penetrating the whole organization
  • Focus on working conditions as influences on human competence and motivation
  • Systematic linking of "fit human to task" and "fit task to human"
road map for hrm work process design

Task /

Work process

Satisfaction

Motivation

Organization as socio-technical system

Performance

Road map for HRM: Work Process Design
fundamentals of organizational design kieser kubicek 1983
Fundamentals of organizational design(Kieser & Kubicek, 1983)
  • Specialization: Distribution of labor, resulting in different kinds of work tasks
  • Coordination: management of dependencies among subtasks, resources, and people
  • Configuration: Structure of line of command
  • Delegation of decision authority: Distribution of decision authority regarding actions and decision rules
  • Formalization: Determination of rules and procedures, e.g. structures, flow of information, performance measurement/assessment
socio technical systems approach
Socio-technical systems approach
  • The beginning - Studies by the Tavistock Institute in English coal mines:One-sided adaptation of the work organization in accordance with the demands of a new technology lead to a suboptimal work system
  • Three core assumptions:
    • Every work system comprises a social and a technical sub-system.
    • The social and technical sub-system have to be jointly optimized.
    • The main criterion for the joint optimization is the control of disturbances at their source.
mechanistic vs organismic organisation burns stalker 1960
Mechanistic vs. organismic organisation(Burns & Stalker, 1960)

Contingencies: Minimizing of uncertainty possible with few uncertainties Coping with uncertainty necessary with many uncertainties

methods for the psychological analysis of work processes
Methods for the psychological analysis of work processes
  • Different goals
    • Determination of pay schemes
    • Determination of requirments/qualification profiles
    • Asessment of job and organizational design during/after technological/organizational change
    • Humane work design
  • Different levels of analysis
    • Human-technology interaction
    • Individual work tasks
    • Organization unit / work system
    • Firm
    • Interfirm processes
  • Different perspectives
    • "objective" situational demands - Assessment by external experts
    • "subjective" personal perception - Assessment by workers themselves
need to combine objective and subjective perspective
Need to combine "objective" and "subjective" perspective
  • Expert for the assessment of a work situation – external observer and/or workers themselves ?
  • Objective conditions and subjective re-interpretation of these conditions are relevant determinants of action
  • Compensation of different kinds of biases (stemming from norms, needs, social context, different uses for data etc.)
empirical methods
Empirical methods
  • Analysis of documents
    • Advantages: non-reactive, "condensed organizational knowledge" Disadvantages: not aligned with purpose of the investigation
  • Written survey
    • Advantages: objective, applicable for large samples
    • Disadvantages: no control over the actual data collection, response biases
  • Interview
    • Advantages: control over data collection, complex issues possible
    • Disadvantages: resource-intensive, interviewer influences
  • Observation
    • Advantages: access to implicit knowledge, natural situation
    • Disadvantages: subjective meaning of the observed unknown, no control over the occurrence of the events under study
work system analysis
Work system analysis
  • Description and evaluation of work processes in work systems based on analysis of variance handling and criteria such as independence of work system
  • Data collection method: Interview and observation based on guidelines
  • Support for assessment through scales with anchor descriptions or with lists of relevant characteristics
method for job analysis
Method for job analysis
  • Description and evaluation of work processes on the level of the individual task based on criteria such as learning opportunities and task completeness
  • Data collection method: Observation with integrated interview
  • Support for assessment through scales with anchor descriptions
zwei gesichter der arbeit lewin 1920
Arbeit ist einmal Mühe, Last, Kraftauf-wand. Wer nicht durch Renten oder Herrschaft oder Liebe versorgt ist, muss notgedrungen arbeiten, um seinen Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen. Arbeit ist unentbehrliche Voraus-setzung zum Leben, aber sie ist selbst noch nicht wirkliches Leben. Darum Arbeit so kurz und so bequem wie möglich! Wenn die Arbeit dazu gleich-förmiger und einseitiger werden muss, so schadet dies nichts, solange es ihrer Produktivität keinen Abbruch tut. Denn aller positiver Wert kommt dieser Arbeit nur indirekt zu, nur durch die wirtschaftlichen Vorteile, die sie dem Arbeitenden bietet.

Die Arbeit ist dem Menschen unentbehr-lich in ganz anderem Sinn. Nicht weil die Notdurft des Lebens sie erzwingt, sondern weil das Leben ohne Arbeit hohl und halb ist. Dieses Bedürfnis nach Arbeit, die Flucht vor dauernden Müssiggang, die bei zu kurzer Arbeitszeit zur Arbeit ausserhalb des Berufs treibt, beruht nicht auf blosser Gewohnheit zu arbeiten, sondern gründet sich auf den 'Lebenswert' der Arbeit. Weil die Arbeit selbst Leben ist, darum will man auch alle Kräfte des Lebens an sie heran-bringen und in ihr auswirken können. Darum will man die Arbeit reich und weit, vielgestaltig und nicht krüppelhaft beengt. Der Fortschritt der Arbeitsweise gehe also nicht auf mögliche Verkürzung der Arbeits-zeit, sondern auf Steigerung des Lebens-werts der Arbeit, mache sie reicher und menschenwürdiger.

Zwei Gesichter der Arbeit(Lewin, 1920)
psychosocial functions of work jahoda 1984
Psychosocial functions of work (Jahoda, 1984)
  • material means of existence
  • activity / competence
  • structuring of time
  • cooperation / social contact
  • social approval
  • sense of personal identity
job design as crucial measure for personnel development
Job design as crucial measure for personnel development
  • Design of humane work tasks in order to further
    • health
    • competencies
    • personality
  • based on the psychosocial functions of work
core characteristics of humane work complete tasks
Core characteristics of humane work: Complete tasks
  • sequential completeness
  • Cycle of goal setting, planning, execution, control and correction
  • hierarchical completeness
  • demands on action regulation at different levels of complexity (skill-, rule- und knowledge-based actions)
  • Reversal of tayloristic principles
the five principles of taylorism
The five principles of Taylorism
  • Separation of planning and doing
    • Responsibility for planning at management level; implementation as sole shopfloor responsibility
  • "one best way" of task execution
    • Definition of the more efficient way of task execution based on scientific methods; every worker executes only one step in the overall task
  • Selection of the best person
    • Definition of qualification profile for each task step, selection of the appropriate person
  • Reduction of training
    • Training for the more efficient way of executing each task step, workers are easily replaced
  • Control
    • Surveillance of adherence to the prescribed work methods and of achievement of required results
objectives of job design
Objectives of job design
  • Autonomy:Self-determination regarding goals and rules for goal achievement.
  • Control:Influence on situations in order to achieve goals which can be self-determined or determined by others.

Prerequisite for effective use of control: Transparency and predictability of work situation.

design rules regarding autonomy and control
Design rules regarding autonomy and control
  • Control should be at a maximum.

But: Management and staff positions can only provide indirect control via line employees.

  • Control without autonomy is possible if strong identification with goals determined by others can be achieved.
  • Autonomy without control contains high potential for frustration (e.g. staff functions without direct influence on the line of command)
effects of humane job design stress reduction
Effects of humane job design: Stress reduction
  • Stress = a situation with demands that cannot be met by personal resources
  • Important resources are
    • control (=means of influence): given (objective) and perceived (subjective)
    • qualification
    • social support
stress at work eu 2002
Stress at work: EU 2002
  • 28% of employees in 15 EU member countries answer that they suffer work-related stress
  • Causes:
      • Lack of control, e.g. regarding planning (35%), work duration (55%), time pressure (29%)
      • Monotony
      • Mobbing
      • Job insecurity
  • Effects:
      • Heart diseases (Men:16%, women: 22%)
      • Absenteeism (50-60%)
      • Estimated costs 20 billion Euro
stress at work switzerland 2002 bfs 2004
Stress at work: Switzerland 2002 (BfS, 2004)
  • 44% of working people state that they suffer from severe work load.
    • Of these 27% indicate that they suffer physical symptoms.
  • 11% of working people fear that they might lose their job.
    • Of these 37% indicate that they suffer physical symptoms.
effects of humane job design furthering development of competencies and personality
Effects of humane job design: Furthering development of competencies and personality
  • Results of longitudinal studies on the effects of job design changes:
    • E.g. Baitsch (1985): Increase in technical competencies, intellectual flexibility, social competence, and moral awareness
  • Results of longitudinal studies in the general public
    • E.g. Kohn & Schooler (1982): Reciprocal interaction between intellectual demands of work andd intellectual development through processes of selection and socialization
considering individual differences in job design
Considering individual differences in job design
  • Participative und differential-dynamic job design:

Involvement in organizational change decisions and offer of choices regarding job design options allows for consideration of indiviual needs and competencies

  • „Job crafting“:

Opportunities for self-determined adaption of work tasks according to changing individual needs and competencies

  • Management by Objectives (MbO):

Systematic furthering of individual motivation through tailored goals and ways for goal achievement

  • General objective: no fixation of individual differences, but individually tailored support
fundamental objective of job design
Fundamental objective of job design

Create conditions that support people in being capable (competence) and also wanting (motivation) to do their job well

road map for hrm work process design1

Task /

Work process

Satisfaction

Motivation

Organization as socio-technical system

Performance

Road map for HRM: Work Process Design
extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation

The less extrinsic motivation …

… the more extrinsic motivation is needed

… the more intrinsic motivation is needed

The less intrinsic motivation …

Extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation
individual differences in motivation
Individual differences in motivation

Different needs:

Motivation = f (satisfaction / frustration of needs)

__________________________________________________

e.g. Physiological needs

Security needs

Affiliation and affection needs

Appreciation needs

Self-actualization needs

Different goals and expectations:

Motivation = Valence x Instrumentality x Expectancy

__________________________________________________

Decision to (not) undertake a certain action depends on the answers to three questions:

Which goal do I want to achieve?

Does this action lead to this goal?

How likely is the success of the action?

development of job dis satisfaction bruggemann 1974

Characteristics of the work situation

Needs and expectations at work

(Mis-)match

Satisfaction

Dissatisfaction

Raising

expectations

Keeping

expectations

Lowering

expectations

Keeping

expectations

Problem

solving

Progressive

satisfaction

Stable satisfaction

Resigned

satisfaction

Fixed

dissatisfaction

Constructive

dissatisfaction

Development of job (dis)satisfaction (Bruggemann, 1974)
discussion in small groups
Discussion in small groups
  • What is “good performance” in your studies/your job/voluntary work?
  • How is it measured?
  • How satisfied are you with how it is measured?
good performance indicators
"Good" performance indicators
  • Adequate for task
  • Sufficient influence -> Based on behavior and results, not personal traits
  • Reliability, validity, objectivity
  • Constructive feedback
  • Participatory development
  • Fit with organizational culture
motivation satisfaction and performance an imperfect relationship

Feedback

Performance-reward relationship

Performance

Performance criteria adequate for task

congruence of formal/informal performance criteria

?

Instrumentalities for individual goals

Individual coping with unfulfilled expectations

Motivation

Satisfaction

Difference between expectation and reality

Fit between individual and organizational goals

Motivation, satisfaction and performance – an imperfect relationship

r = .3

design of complete tasks
Design of complete tasks
  • individual tasks:
    • horizontal (job enlargement), i.e. adding tasks with the same qualification profileUsually neither improvement of sequential (= complete cycles of goal setting - planning - executing - controlling - correcting) nor hierarchical completeness (= different levels of task complexity)
    • vertical (job enrichment), i.e. adding tasks with more complex qualification profilesOpportunity for improving both sequential and hierarchical completeness
    • job rotation, i.e. changes between tasks with same or different qualification profilesOpportunity for improving sequential and hierarchical completeness depending on tasks
  • collective tasks:
    • self-regulating teams, i.e. assignment of a complete task to a groupOpportunity for improving both sequential and hierarchical completeness
work in self regulating semi autonomous teams
Work in self-regulating (="semi-autonomous") teams
  • Team:
    • several people,
    • working together for some time,
    • in order to reach common goals,
    • having a group identity.
  • "semi-autonomous":The team can decide or participate in decision-making on several of the following issues:
    • production goals (amount and quality)
    • task spectrum
    • production methods
    • work schedule
    • representation of group in the organization
    • internal management of the group
    • group membership
    • internal distribution of tasks
    • individual work methods
advantages of teams
Advantages of teams
  • developing ideas
  • discovering and compensating individual errors
  • furthering systems view
  • supporting shared task orientation
  • offering reciprocal support
  • alleviating individual work load
disadvantages of teams
Disadvantages of teams
  • friction
  • conformity
  • levelling of individual performance
  • diffusion of responsibility
  • devaluation of other groups
prerequsites for good team work
Prerequsites for good team work
  • Adequate common task
    • Complexity higher than individual competencies
    • Clear performance criteria
    • Collective decision competence
  • Shared goal orientation
    • Positive goal coupling
    • Goal transparency and feedback
  • Adequate group composition
    • Different perspectives on the task
    • Shared language
  • Development of group rules
    • Adequate group size
    • Support for team development (form, storm, norm, perform)
    • Explicit handling of conflicts between individual and collective autonomy
and don t forget individual job design
And don´t forget individual job design ...
  • Empowerment better predicts company performance than technology-based management practices (Patterson et al., 2004)
fundamentals of organizational design kieser kubicek 19831
Fundamentals of organizational design(Kieser & Kubicek, 1983)
  • Specialization: Distribution of labor, resulting in different kinds of work tasks
  • Coordination: Management of dependencies among subtasks, resources, and people
  • Configuration: Structure of line of command
  • Delegation of decision authority: Distribution of decision authority regarding actions and decision rules
  • Formalization: Determination of rules and procedures for work processes
changes in organizational design examples
Changes in organizational design: Examples
  • Functional specialization vs. integration
  • Line vs. group production
  • Centralization vs. decentralization
  • Increase in formalization (e.g. management systems)
  • ...
slide65

Phases of organizational change

Unfreeze - Move - Freeze

New level of equilibrium

Restraining forces

Current level of equilibrium

Driving forces

slide67

Change strategies

•Personal versus structural approach:

•Expert versus process consulting

  • Planned change (e.g. BPR) versus organization development
slide68

Kotter (1996)

to manage change: to tell people what to do

to lead change: to show people how to be

resistance against change
Resistance against change

Causes: Uncertainty regarding novel things

Sense of loss of control

Sticking to old norms/privileges

One-sided perception of old/new situation

Strategies dealing with resistance:

rational = Informing about advantages of new situation

normative/ = Developing new compatible values and norms ("speaking re-educative differently rather than arguing well as chief instrument for cultural change")

coercion = sanctioning change through exercising power

Requirements for constructive handling of resistance:

Participation

Trust/openness

Qualification for change

Avoiding strain/threat

participation
Participation

"Opportunities for individuals and groups to follow their interests by influencing the choice of alternatives in a given situation"

Degree of influence:

Information = no influence

Consultation = opportunity for expressing opinions

versus

= due consideration of all opinions

Veto

Common decision

Effects of participation:

Control, motivation, competence development;

Common decision as link between change motivation and

changed behavior

Attention!

Fit between chosen form of participation and general principles of operation in the organization is crucial

degree of participation in decision making the decision tree by vroom yetton 1973
Degree of participation in decision-making:The decision tree by Vroom & Yetton (1973)
  • Is there a quality requirement: Is one solution better than another?
  • Do you yourself have enough information to make a good decision?
  • Is the problem well-defined? Has it been reduced already to choosing among a set of alternatives?
  • Is it important for implementation that the decision and its effects are accepted by your team?
  • Would your team accept the decision if you made it alone?
  • Does your team share the organizational goals which are to be reached through the decision?
  • Will the chosen solution lead to conflicts among your team?
slide72

Autocratic decision

no

4

yes

yes

5

no

no

1

Group decision

no

4

Autocratic decision

yes

yes

yes

yes

5

Group decision

no

yes

2

5

6

yes

yes

4

no

no

3

no

Individual decision after

consultation with group

yes

yes

no

7

no

Individual decision after

consulation with each

group member

no

Autocratic decision after

obtaining information

from individual group

members

5

yes

4

yes

no

no

Individual decision after

consultation with group

6

yes

Group decision

no

Individual decision after

consultation with group

a process approach to work process design organization development
A process approach to work process design: Organization development

Change of the entire organizational system with active participation of all people involved in order to increase organizational performance and individual development

 Participation and openness of the change process as core characteristic

 Taking into consideration the linkages between subsystems in the organization

 Linking organizational and individual goals

 Change through the process of changing (i.e. participatory diagnosis and implementation)

basis for organizational diagnosis socio technical systems analysis
Basis for organizational diagnosis: Socio-technical systems analysis

1. - 4.Analysis of work system and its organizational integration

  • Description of most important elements of work system and its environment (Layout, organizational structure and processes, relationship to other parts of the organization, etc.)
  • Detailed description of the production processes
  • Identification of main variances and disturbances and their sources
  • Detailed description of the social system (distribution of labor, work role assignments, reulation requirements and possibilities, etc.)

5. Perception of task requirements and their fulfilment by members of the work system

6. - 8. Analysis of external influences on the work system

6. Maintenance system

7. Supplier/costumer relationships

8. Context (market, societal factors etc.)

9. Design propositions

introducing an intranet at admin grote 1993
Introducing an intranet at Admin (Grote, 1993)
  • Introduction of an intranet in part of a large administration for supporting professionals in carrying out long-term cross-departmental projects with high cooperation demands
  • Company objective in phase 1: Increasing efficiency of communication in existing structures
  • Revised company objective in phase 2: Increasing efficieny and effectiveness of work processes through participatory use of organizational options
design decisions phase 1 top down
Design decisions phase 1 (top-down)
  • All heads of groups/departments and some professional staff are included in intranet.
  • Distribution of tasks and work processes are to remain unchanged.
profile of intranet usage in year 1
Profile of intranet usage in year 1

once per day

several times per week

once per week

never

design meetings after phase 1
Design meetings after phase 1
  • Meetings per department/group with representatives of all occupational groups
  • Information on results of phase 1
  • Analysis of own current work situation
  • Analysis of typical work processes with strengths and weaknesses
  • Discussion on potential of intranet to improve individual work situation and work processes
design decisions phase 2 bottom up
Design decisions phase 2 (bottom-up)
  • All administrative assistants are included in intranet.
  • Redistribution of tasks between admini-strative assistants and professional staff (more adminstrative tasks for professio-nals, more professional tasks for assistants)
  • In some groups delegation of decision authority to professional staff.
profile of intranet usage in year 2
Profile of intranet usage in year 2

once per day

several times per week

once per week

never

conclusions on introduction of intranet at admin
Conclusions on introduction of intranet at Admin
  • Participatory reflection on technology use improves organization-technology fit.
  • Organizational culture shapes technology use.
  • Intranet technologies have the potential for furthering decentralization.
  • Organizational diagnosis and continuous description of changes are main instru-ments for supporting decisions on work process design.
road map for both hrm classes work process design leading teams1

Task /

Work process

Personnel selection

Satisfaction

Motivation

Personnel development

Organization as socio-technical system

Performance

Performance appraisal / Pay

Leadership

Team

Road map for both HRM classes (Work process design, Leading teams)
two perspectives on the relationship person work
Two perspectives on the relationship person - work
  • static relationship: person and job stay the same, fit has to be established once.
  • dynamic relationship: person and/or job change continuously, continuous adaption needed.

 Fit / adaptation can happen based on „fit human to task“ and/or „fit task to human“.

fit task to human focus in hrm a
Fit task to human (focus in HRM A)
  • Job design
  • Job crafting
  • supports dynamic relationship between person and work if tasks are created that include autonomy and learning requirements
the product of work is people 1
The product of work is people (1)

„Jemand, der tagtäglich nur wenige einfache Handgriffe ausführt, die zudem immer das gleiche oder ein ähnliches Ergebnis haben, hat keinerlei Gelegenheit, sich im Denken zu üben. Denn da Hindernisse nicht auftreten, braucht er sich auch über deren Beseitigung keine Gedanken zu machen. So ist es ganz natürlich, dass er verlernt, seinen Verstand zu gebrauchen, und so stumpfsinnig und einfältig wird, wie es ein menschliches Wesen nur eben werden kann. Solch geistige Trägheit macht ihn nicht nur unfähig, Gefallen an einer vernünftigen Unterhaltung zu finden oder sich daran zu beteiligen, sie stumpft ihn auch gegenüber differenzierten Empfindungen (...) ab, so dass er auch seine gesunde Urteilsfähigkeit vielen Dingen gegenüber, selbst jenen des täglichen Lebens, verliert.“(Adam Smith, 1776)

the product of work is people 2
The product of work is people (2)
  • Cross-sectional studies = comparison between people at one point in time

e.g. relationship between work and leisure activities

    • no relationship - empirical finding only for subjective assessment by people themselves, especially for "identity threating work" (Hoff, 1986)
    • work changes leisure - most frequent empirical finding (e.g. Meissner, 1971; Leitner, 1993)
    • leisure compensates for work - empirical finding especially regarding compensation of strain (e.g. Bamberg, 1986)
the product of work is people 3
The product of work is people (3)
  • Longitudinal studies = Observe the same people over a period of time

e.g. reciprocal relationship between intellectual job demands and development of intelligence (Schallberger, 1987)

    • selection effect (more intelligent people get more demanding jobs) and
    • socialization effect (demanding jobs further intelligence) result in
    • widening gap (for more intelligent people intelligence increases, for less intelligent people intelligence stays the same/decreases)
the product of work is people 4
The product of work is people (4)

Career orientations and their change through job experience (Rosenstiel et al., 1998)

fit human to task focus in hrm leading teams
Fit human to task (focus in HRM: Leading teams)
  • Personnel selection
  • Training
  • supports dynamic relationship if people are chosen/trained for motivation and capability to learn
when to use which strategy with which objective
When to use which strategy with which objective ?
  • fit human to task versus fit task to human?
  • select the right people or train people to become right?
  • strive for stable fit versus continuous adaptation?
integration of fit human to task and fit task to human
Integration of "fit human to task" and "fit task to human"
  • Strive for dynamic relationship between people and work to keep people and organization moving
  • Select people that want to and can develop => learning ability and willingness as important selection criterion
  • Personnel development via training and via work assignments that further learning
  • Support for lateral und vertical careers in syste-matic processes of selection and development