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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 Material and Process Classifications

  2. Chapter Highlights • The North American Industry ClassificationSystem (NAICS) is used to identify manufacturing industries • There are five major material families, or types of materials used in the manufacture of hard good manufactured products • Differentiation between primary and secondary manufacturing industries

  3. Chapter Highlights • The major processing actions—forming, separating, fabricating, conditioning, and finishing—can be used to classify types of manufacturing processes • Case studies of processes in industry, associating process actions with material families

  4. Manufactured Consumer Products • 21 different classifications (listed by codes) in NAICS • 473 product groups, with 1,500 sub-classifications under these types of codes • 2 codes: food, beverages, tobacco products • 3 codes: wood, paper, and printing products • 3 codes: metal products • Other codes: furniture, computers and electrical, plastics and rubber, and nonmetallic mineral products

  5. Consumer Product Types • Consumable • Products that are digestible/eaten • Products that are chewed—gum, candy • Nonconsumable (Emphasis in textbook) • Hard good consumer products (durable goods)— vehicles, machine tools, chemicals, adhesives, etc. • Soft good consumer products—paper products, textile products, computer software

  6. Major Material Families • Metals • Plastics • Woods • Ceramics • Composites All manufacturing firms make industrial stock from raw materials, make new products from stock, or assemble parts into new products provides a searchable database of more than 59,000 metals, plastics, ceramics, and composites

  7. Material Processing in Manufacturing (Continued)

  8. Material Processing in Manufacturing (Continued)

  9. Material Processing in Manufacturing (Continued)

  10. Material Processing in Manufacturing (Continued)

  11. Material Processing in Manufacturing

  12. Material Processing Categories • Primary Processing • Concerned with making industrial stock • Secondary Processing • Used to make hard good consumer products

  13. Major Material Processing FamiliesMetallic Family • Primary metal mfg. • Fabricated metal products mfg. • Machinery mfg. • Computer and electronic product mfg. • Steel wire drawing mfg. • Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil mfg. • Transportation equipment mfg.

  14. Major Material Processing FamiliesCeramic Family • Nonmetallic mineral product mfg. • Miscellaneous mfg. • Clay product and refractory mfg. • Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture mfg. • Glass and glass product mfg.

  15. Major Material Processing FamiliesPolymeric/Plastics Family • Plastics and rubber products mfg. • Chemical mfg. • Petroleum and coal products mfg. • Plastics, foil, and coated paper bag mfg. • Polystyrene foam product mfg. • Plastic bottle mfg. • Doll, toy, and game mfg.

  16. Major Material Processing FamiliesPolymeric/Woods Family • Furniture and related products mfg. • Wood product mfg. • Paper mfg. • Printing and related support activities • Engineered wood mfg. • Reconstituted wood mfg.

  17. Major Material Processing FamiliesComposites Family • Computer and electronic product mfg. • Transportation equipment mfg. • Chemical mfg. • Textile mfg. • Abrasive product mfg. • Semiconductor and other electronic component mfg.

  18. Process Actions A process action describes what happens when a manufacturing process changes the internal structure or the outward appearance of a material.

  19. Forming • Forming processes are used to change the size or shape of industrial stock • Hydraulic and mechanical pressure is normally used to squeeze or shape the material • There is no loss of weight or volume when material is formed • Bending, stretching, casting, pressing, and molding are all forming processes

  20. Product Showcase #1 • KNC (Kinston Neuse Corporation) • Kinston, North Carolina • Subsidiary of Crown Equipment Corporation, New Bremen, Ohio • Manufacturer of electric lift trucks

  21. Forming Process Overview • Manufacturing process showcased: 350 ton Cincinnati computer assisted numerical control (CNC) hydraulic press brake

  22. Flange Forming and Bending First operation: .312" metal stock is moved to the press brake using an overhead crane

  23. Flange Forming and Bending Second operation: The operator inserts the workpiece into the press brake for each bend or fold

  24. Flange Forming and Bending Third Operation: After all folds and bends are completed, the operator removes the workpiece using the overhead crane

  25. Forks after Forming

  26. Separating Processes Overview • Separating processes can be classified by type of chip that is produced • Mechanical chip producing separating • Mechanical non-chip-producing separating • Non-mechanical separating

  27. Mechanical Chip Producing Separating Processes • Wedge cutting action is involved • There is a loss of volume with this process • Sawing is an example—the chip that is generated is waste (either lost or recycled for use in another application)

  28. Mechanical Non-Chip-Producing Separating Processes • Wedge cutting action is involved • No chip is produced • There is no loss of material • Shearing of paper is an example

  29. Non-Mechanical Separating Processes • These processes involve a cutting action • In some cases chips are generated; in others they are not • Etching or photochemical milling of metal are examples

  30. Product Showcase #2 • Phoenix Fabrication Incorporated Ayden, North Carolina Large job shop known for high tolerance work involving computer assisted design and manufacturing to automated processing on the plant floor

  31. Separating ProcessMechanical Chip-Producing Equipment: TRUMPF 500 punch press Process: Punching

  32. Punched Parts

  33. Product Showcase #3 • NACCO Materials Handling Group, Inc. • Greenville, North Carolina • Subsidiary of NACCO Industries Incorporated • Manufacturer of frames and bodies for Hyster, Yale, and Sumitomo-Yale brand lift trucks • 17 locations worldwide

  34. Fabricating ProcessMetal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding • MIG is also known as Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) • MIG uses argon, helium, or carbon dioxide gas to reduce contamination and oxidation in the weld area

  35. Fabricating ProcessMetal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding • A consumable wire electrode is fed through the nozzle of a welding gun • The wire carries a positive charge and the workpiece is grounded (negative charge) • When the rod is held close to the metal, an arc is created and welding begins

  36. Preparation for Welding

  37. Product Showcase #4 • Louisiana Pacific Company (LP) • Wilmington, North Carolina • Headquarters in Nashville, Tennessee • Manufacturer of building materials in North America, with facilities in the U.S., Canada, and Chile • 29 Manufacturing facilities in the U.S. • Product to be Showcased:Gang-Lam® Engineered Wood/Laminated Veneer (LVL)

  38. Conditioning Process Overview Manufacturing processes involved: • Grading • Scarfing • Layup of sheets • Hotpressing • Product Conveying • Quality inspection • Final inspection

  39. Conditioning processes are used by LP to produce Gang-Lam® laminated veneer lumber Conditioning Process Overview

  40. Layup of Sheets This process involves laminating,pressing, and spraying of resin

  41. Hot Pressing

  42. Gang-Lam® Being Conveyed

  43. The Hammock Source Greenville, North Carolina and Winterville, NC Parent company for both The Original Pawley’s Island Rope Hammocks® and Hatteras Hammocks® Product Showcase # 5

  44. Powder coating of metal hammock stand Nordson powder coating system Seven components in the system: Overhead part conveyor Wash and sealing unit Electrostatic controlmodule Powder feeder anddelivery pump Spray guns Powder recoverysystem Curing ovens Finishing Process Overview

  45. Coating Metal Parts Electrostatic powder coating is used topaint the metal hammock frame

  46. Coating Metal Parts