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TWIRTEENTH EDITION Enger • Ross • Bailey CHAPTER 1 Chapter opener 01 1.1 The Significance of Biology in Your Life Consider how your future will be influenced by how the following questions are ultimately answered :

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twirteenth edition enger ross bailey chapter 1
TWIRTEENTH EDITION

Enger • Ross • Bailey

CHAPTER 1

slide4

Consider how your future will be influenced by how the following questions are ultimately answered:

  • How can we reduce the probability that new strains of disease-causing bacterial will evolve?
  • Is DNA testing reliable enough to be admitted as evidence in court cases ?
  • Why is there an epidemic of obesity in the United States? Can physicians and scientists manipulate our genes in order to control certain disease conditions we have inherited ?
  • Will the thinning of the ozone layer of the upper atmosphere result in increased incidence of skin cancer ?
  • Will a vaccine for AIDS be developed in the next 10 years ?
  • Will new, inexpensive, socially acceptable methods of birth control be developed that can slow world population growth ?
  • Are human activities really causing the world to get warmer ?
  • How dose extinction of a species change the ecological situation where it once lived ?
why study biology
Why study biology?
  • To be an informed citizen.
  • An understanding of biology is important to address a number of social issues today.
    • DNA testing
    • Birth control
    • Global warming
    • AIDS
slide6

Example 1:

Human population should be slowed.

Killing infants and forced sterilization.

  • Example 2:

Mad Cow Disease.

It is important to recognize that science has a role to play but that is does not have the answers to all our problems. (Social and Philosophical Questions)

1 2 science and scientific method
1.2 Science and Scientific Method
  • The science that deals with life.
  • What is science?
    • A process used to solve problems and understand natural events.
    • Involves the scientific method.
basic assumptions in science
Basic assumptions in science
  • Scientists approach their work with some basic assumptions
    • Natural events have specific causes.
    • Those causes can be identified.
    • Natural events follow general rules and patterns.
    • A recurrent natural event has a common cause.
    • Different people can observe the same natural events.
    • Natural laws hold true regardless of time and place.
  • Example: Lightning
scientists look for cause and effect relationships
Scientists look for cause and effect relationships
  • Events that happen simultaneously are correlated, but
    • may or may not have a cause and effect relationship.
    • Example: Autumn and falling leaves
  • Events have a cause and effect relationship
    • when one event happens as a direct result of a preceding event.
    • Example: Lightning causes thunder.
the scientific method
The scientific method
  • A way of gaining information about the world that involves
    • forming possible solutions to questions.
    • rigorous testing to determine if the solutions are supported.
    • continual checking and rechecking to make sure that previous conclusions are still supported.
    • modification of unsupported conclusions.
components of the scientific method
Components of the scientific method
  • Observation
  • Questioning and exploration
  • Forming and testing hypotheses
  • Evaluation of new information
  • Review by peers
observation questioning and exploration
Observation, questioning and exploration
  • An observation is a thoughtful and careful recognition of an event or a fact (see next slide).
  • The careful observation of a phenomenon leads to a question (see next slide).
    • How does this happen?
    • What causes it to occur?
  • The question must be testable.
  • Scientists then explore scientific publications to find any information that has been gathered about the question.
constructing hypotheses
Constructing hypotheses
  • Once the question is asked, scientists propose answers.
  • These answers are hypothesis.
  • Hypotheses must:
    • Be logical
    • Account for all current information
    • Be testable
    • Make the least possible assumptions
testing hypotheses
Testing hypotheses
  • Hypotheses need to be tested to see if they are supported or disproved.
    • Disproved hypotheses are rejected.
    • Hypotheses can be supported but not proven.
  • There are several ways to test a hypothesis:
    • Gathering relevant historical information.
    • Make additional observations from the natural world.
    • Experimentation
experimentation
Experimentation
  • An experiment is a re-creation of an occurrence.
    • It tests whether or not the hypothesis can be supported or rejected.
  • Experiments must be controlled.
    • This means that all aspects except for one variable must be kept constant.
    • They usually include any two groups.
      • Experimental group: variable is altered
      • Control group: variable is not altered
experimental design
Experimental design
  • The variable that is altered is called the independent variable.
    • Experiments should have only one independent variable.
  • The variables that change in response to the independent variable are called dependent variables.
    • Changes in the dependent variables are documented as data.
  • Data from the experiment is analyzed and hypotheses are rejected and revised or supported.
a sample experiment
A sample experiment
  • Hypothesis: Male sex hormones produced by the testes stimulate male birds to sing.
  • Experimental group: Male birds with testes removed at birth.
  • Control group: Male birds subjected to a similar surgery that were allowed to develop normally with testes.
  • Independent variable: presence or absence of testes.
  • Dependent variable: presence of singing behavior
  • Data: Male songbirds without testes do not exhibit singing behavior.
  • Conclusion: Hypothesis is supported.
experimental data
Experimental data
  • Experiments must:
    • Use large numbers of subjects or must be repeated several times (replication)
    • Be independently reproducible.
  • The validity of experimental results must:
    • Be tested statistically.
    • Be scrutinized by other scientists.
  • If the hypothesis is supported by large experimental data, it leads to a theory.
slide25

1953年Waston & Crick解讀

DNA double helix的結構;

並於1962年獲得諾貝爾獎

theory
Theory
  • A theory may be defined as a widely accepted, plausible general statement about a fundamental concept in science.
    • The germ theory states that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms.
      • Many diseases are not caused by microorganisms, so we must be careful not to generalize theories too broadly.
    • Theories continue to be tested.
      • Exceptions identified
      • Modifications made
a scientific law
A scientific law
  • A scientific law is a uniform and constant fact of nature that describes what happens in nature.
    • An example: All living things come from pre-existing living things.
  • Scientific laws promote the process of generalization.
    • Inductive reasoning
    • Since every bird that has been studied lays eggs, we can generalize that all birds lay eggs.
  • Once a theory becomes established, it can be used to predict specific facts.
    • Deductive reasoning
    • We can predict that a newly discovered bird species will lay eggs.
scientific communication
Scientific communication
  • Data is shared with the scientific community through research articles published in scientific journals.
    • These articles are usually scrutinized by other scientists before they are published.
  • Scientists present preliminary data at conferences.
  • Scientists collaborate directly by phone, e-mail, and skype.
1 3 fundamental attitudes in science
1.3 Fundamental attitudes in science
  • Scientists must distinguish between opinions and scientific facts.
    • Scientists’ opinions may become facts if supported by data.
  • A good scientist must
    • be skeptical.
    • not be biased.
    • be honest in analyzing and reporting data.
  • The critical difference between science and non-science is that in science, one can test the principle. In non-science, one may not be able to.
theoretical vs applied science
Theoretical vs. Applied Science
  • Initially, some scientific data seems to be purely informational and not very practical.
  • Practical applications usually follow the discoveries of basic science.
    • The discovery of the structure of DNA has led to new drug treatments for many diseases. (antibiotics, hormones, enzymes)
    • The discovery of microorganisms has led to a dramatic decrease in infectious disease and food preservation. (vaccination against rabies, pasteurization for the preservation of food)
science vs nonscience
Science vs. Nonscience
  • Scientists continually challenge and test principles to determine cause-and-effect relationships.
    • Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy
  • Nonscientists cannot test their hypotheses directly and often cannot establish cause-and-effect relationships.
    • History, Literature, Philosophy, Art, Sociology, etc.
pseudoscience
Pseudoscience
  • A deceptive practice that uses the language of science to convince people into thinking that a claim has scientific validity.
    • Marketing claims of nutritional supplements.
    • Marketing claims of organic foods.

Fig. 1.11 Pseudoscience- “Nine out of 10

Doctors Surveyed Recommend Brand X”

limitations of science
Limitations of science
  • The scientific method can only be applied to questions that have a factual base.
  • Questions of morality, values, social issues and attitudes cannot be tested scientifically.
  • Science is limited by scientists.
    • People are fallible.
    • The sun orbits the earth.
  • But, science is self-correcting.
    • New data shapes new hypotheses.
    • The earth rotates on its axis, so maybe the earth orbits the sun.
1 4 the science of biology
1.4 The science of biology
  • The study of living things.
  • Theoretical biology
    • Evolutionary biology, animal behavior, biochemistry
  • Applied biology
    • Medicine, crop science, plant breeding, wildlife management
what makes something alive
What makes something alive?
  • Living things can manipulate energy and matter.
characteristics of living things i
Characteristics of living things (I)
  • Metabolic processes
    • Organisms gain and store energy in the chemical bonds in the nutrients they take in.
  • Generative processes
    • Organisms grow by increasing the number of cells.
    • Organisms reproduce either sexually or asexually.
characteristics of living things ii
Characteristics of living things (II)
  • Responsive processes
    • Organisms respond to changes in their environment.
      • Irritability: the ability to recognize a stimulus and respond to it quickly.
      • Individual adaptation: a longer term response to an environmental change.
      • Evolution: changes in a population over time.
characteristics of living things iii
Characteristics of living things (III)
  • Control processes
    • Enable organisms to carry out metabolic processes in the right order.
      • Coordination: Enzymes coordinate metabolic reactions. (e.g., handling nutrients)
      • Regulation: Enzymes are regulated in order to maintain homeostasis. (e.g., exercise)
  • Unique structural organization
    • Organisms are made of cells.
    • Each kind of organism has specific structural characteristics
levels of biological organization i
Levels of biological organization (I)
  • Biosphere—the worldwide ecosystem.
  • Ecosystem—communities that interact with one another in a particular place.
  • Communities—populations of different organisms interacting with each other in a particular place.
  • Population—a group of individual organisms in a particular place.
  • Organism—an independent living unit.
levels of biological organization ii
Levels of biological organization (II)
  • Organ system—many organs that perform a particular function.
  • Organ—many tissues that perform a particular function.
  • Tissue—many cells that perform a particular function.
  • Cell—simplest unit that shows characteristics of life.
  • Molecules—specific arrangements of atoms.
  • Atoms—the fundamental units of matter.
significance of biology
Significance of biology
  • Biology has significantly contributed to our high standard of living.
  • For example:
      • Advanced food production
      • Significant progress in health
      • Advances in disease control
      • Advances in plant and animal breeding
      • Advances in biotechnology
      • Progress in genome studies
slide45

The Consequences of Not Understanding

Biological Principles

  • Lack of Understanding … Ecological Systems
  • The damage Caused by Exotic Species
  • Ethical Concerns
      • Major advances in health care
      • Many people lack even the most basic health care, while the rich nations of the world spend millions of dollars to have cosmetic surgery …
slide48

Future Directions in Biology

  • Control of the human population
  • Curing hereditary disease
  • Between genetic info. and such diseases
      • Alzheimer’s disease
      • Stroke
      • Arthritis
      • Cancer
      • AIDS

Ecology: Climate change, pollution, human population