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Network+ Guide to Networks 5 th Edition. Chapter 6 Network Hardware. Objectives. Identify the functions of LAN connectivity hardware Install, configure, and differentiate between network devices such as, NICs, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, and gateways

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network guide to networks 5 th edition

Network+ Guide to Networks5th Edition

Chapter 6

Network Hardware

objectives
Objectives
  • Identify the functions of LAN connectivity hardware
  • Install, configure, and differentiate between network devices such as, NICs, hubs, bridges, switches, routers, and gateways
  • Explain the advanced features of a switch and understand popular switching techniques, including VLAN management
  • Explain the purposes and properties of routing
  • Describe common IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

nics network interface cards
NICs (Network Interface Cards)
  • Connectivity devices
    • Enable device transmission
    • Transceiver
      • Transmits and receives data
  • Physical layer and Data Link layer functions
    • Issue data signals
    • Assemble and disassemble data frames
    • Interpret physical addressing information
    • Determine right to transmit data

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

nics cont d
NICs (cont’d.)
  • Smart hardware
    • Perform prioritization
    • Network management
    • Buffering
    • Traffic-filtering
  • Do not analyze information
    • Added by Layers 3 through 7 OSI model protocols
  • Importance
    • Common to every networking device, network

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

types of nics
Types of NICs
  • Before ordering or installing NIC
    • Know device interface type
  • NIC dependencies
    • Access method
    • Network transmission speed
    • Connector interfaces
    • Compatible motherboard or device type
    • Manufacturer

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

types of nics cont d
Types of NICs (cont’d.)
  • Bus
    • Circuit, signaling pathway
    • Motherboard uses to transmit data to computer’s components
      • Memory, processor, hard disk, NIC
    • Differ according to capacity
      • Defined by data path width and clock speed
    • Data path size
      • Parallel bits transmitting at any given time
      • Proportional to attached device’s speed

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

internal bus standards
Internal Bus Standards
  • Expansion slots
    • Multiple electrical contacts on motherboard
    • Allows bus expansion
  • Expansion card (expansion board)
    • Circuit board for additional devices
    • Inserts into expansion slot, establishes electrical connection
    • Device connects to computer’s main circuit or bus
    • Computer centrally controls device

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

internal bus standards cont d
Internal Bus Standards (cont’d.)
  • Multiple bus types
    • PCI bus: most popular expansion board NIC
  • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
    • 32- or 64-bit bus
    • Clock speeds rated at 33-, 66- or 133-MHz
    • Maximum data transfer rate: 1 Gbps
    • Introduced by Intel (1992)
    • Latest official version: 3.0 (2004)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide9

Figure 6-1 PCI NIC

  • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)
    • Original PC bus type (early 1980s)
      • Support for 8-bit and 16-bit data path, 4.77-MHz clock
  • PCI bus characteristics
    • Shorter connector length, faster data transmission
      • Compared to previous bus types (ISA)
    • PCs and Macintosh compatible

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide10

Figure 6-2 PCIe NIC

  • PCIe (PCI Express)
    • 32- or 64-bit bus
    • Maximum 133-MHz clock speed
    • Transfer rate
      • 500 Mbps per data path (full-duplex transmission)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

internal bus standards cont d11
Internal Bus Standards (cont’d.)
  • PCIe advantages over PCI
    • More efficient data transfer
    • Quality of service distinctions support
    • Error reporting, handling
    • Current PCI software compatible
  • PCIe slots differ from conventional PCI
    • Vary by lanes supported
    • Lane offers full-duplex throughput of 500 Mbps
      • Support up to 16 lanes
      • x16 slot : 8 Gbps throughput

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide12

Figure 6-3 A motherboard with multiple expansion slots

  • Determining bus type
    • Read documentation
    • Look inside PC case
    • If more than one expansion slot type:
      • Refer to NIC, PC manufacturers’ guidelines
      • Choose NIC matching most modern bus

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

peripheral bus standards
Peripheral Bus Standards
  • Attach peripheral devices externally
  • External connection advantage
    • Simple installation
  • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association or PCMCIA
    • Sets standards for externally attached cards
      • Connect virtually any external device type
  • PC Card
    • First standard PCMCIA-standard adapter
      • 16- bit interface running at 8 MHz

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide14

Figure 6-4 A CardBus NIC

  • CardBus standard (1990s)
    • 32-bit interface running at 33 MHz
    • Matches PCI expansion board standard

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

peripheral bus standards cont d
Peripheral Bus Standards(cont’d.)
  • ExpressCard standard
    • Many different external devices connect to portable computers
    • 26-pin interface
    • Data transfer rates: 250 Mbps in each direction
      • 500 Mbps total
    • Same data transfer standards as PCIe specification
    • Two sizes
      • 34 mm, 54 mm wide

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

peripheral bus standards cont d17
Peripheral Bus Standards(cont’d.)
  • USB (universal serial bus) port
    • Two USB standards
      • Difference: speed
      • USB 1.1: transfer rate of 12 Mbps
      • USB 2.0: transfer rate of 480 Mbps
    • Future
      • USB 3.0 (SuperSpeed USB)
      • Transfer rate: 4.8 Gbps

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

types of nics cont d18

Figure 6-6 A USB NIC

Types of NICs (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

peripheral bus standards cont d19
Peripheral Bus Standards(cont’d.)
  • Firewire
    • Apple Computer (1980s)
    • IEEE 1394 standard (1995)
    • Traditional Firewire connection: 400 Mbps (max)
    • Newer version: 3 Gbps
    • Connects most peripheral types
    • Connects small network
      • Two or more computers using bus topology

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

peripheral bus standards cont d20
Peripheral Bus Standards(cont’d.)
  • FireWire-connected peripherals
    • Similar to USB- and PCMCIA-connected peripherals
      • Simple installation
      • Supported by most modern operating systems
    • Two connector varieties: 4-pin and 6-pin
    • 6-pin connector
      • Two pins supply power
      • Interconnect computers

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

peripheral bus standards cont d22
Peripheral Bus Standards(cont’d.)
  • CompactFlash
    • Designed by CompactFlash Association (CFA)
      • Ultrasmall
      • Removable data and input/output device
    • Latest standard: 4.0
      • Data transfer rate: 133 Mbps
    • Uses
      • Connects devices too small for PCMCIA slots
      • Wireless connections

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

on board nics
On-Board NICs
  • Connect device directly to motherboard
    • On-board ports: mouse, keyboard
  • New computers, laptops
    • Use onboard NICs integrated into motherboard
  • Advantages
    • Saves space
    • Frees expansion slots

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

wireless nics

Figure 6-9 Wireless NICs

Wireless NICs
  • Contain antennas
    • Send, receive signals
    • All bus types supported
  • Disadvantages over wire-bound NICs
    • More expensive
    • Bandwidth and security limitations

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing nics
Installing NICs
  • Three general steps
    • Install hardware
    • Install NIC software
    • Configure firmware (if necessary)
      • Set of data, instructions
      • Saved to NIC’s ROM (read-only memory) chip
      • Use configuration utility program
  • EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory)
    • Apply electrical charges
      • ROM data erased, changed

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing and configuring nic hardware
Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware
  • Read manufacturer’s documentation
  • Install expansion card NIC
    • Verify toolkit contents
    • Unplug computer
    • Ground yourself
    • Open computer case
      • Select slot, insert NIC, attach bracket, verify cables
    • Replace cover, turn on computer
      • Configure NIC software

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide28

Figure 6-10 A properly inserted NIC

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing and configuring nic hardware cont d

Figure 6-11 Installing a PCMCIA-standard NIC

Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware (cont’d.)
  • Physically install PCMCIA-standard NIC
    • Insert card into PCMCIA slot

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing and configuring nic hardware cont d30
Installing and Configuring NIC Hardware (cont’d.)
  • Modern operating systems
    • Do not require restart for PCMCIA-standard adapter
  • Servers, other high-powered computers
    • Install multiple NICs
    • Repeat installation process for additional NIC
    • Choose different slot

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing and configuring nic software
Installing and Configuring NIC Software
  • Device driver
    • Software
      • Enables attached device to communicate with operating system
  • Purchased computer
    • Drivers installed
  • Add hardware to computer
    • Must install drivers

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing and configuring nic software cont d
Installing and Configuring NIC Software (cont’d.)
  • Operating system built-in drivers
    • Automatically recognize hardware, install drivers
    • Computer startup
      • Device drivers loaded into RAM
      • Computer can communicate with devices
  • Drivers not available from operating system
    • Install and configure NIC software
      • Use operating system interface

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

quick quiz 1
Quick Quiz #1
  • 1. True or False: A NIC has no room for a transceiver.
  • Answer: False 
  • A bus is defined by ____.
    • Answer: data path width and clock speed
  • True or False: One disadvantage to using wireless NICs is that currently they are somewhat more expensive than wire-bound NICs using the same bus type.
  • Answer: True 
  • ____ is a set of data or instructions that has been saved to a ROM.
  • Answer: Firmware
  • If the ___ NIC LED indicator light is blinking, this indicates that the NIC is functional and transmitting frames to the network.
  • Answer: TX

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

interpreting led indicators
Interpreting LED Indicators
  • After NIC is installed:
    • Test by transmitting data
    • Assess NIC LEDs for network communication
      • Vary by manufacturer
      • Read documentation
    • Common lights
      • ACT, LNK, LED, TX, RX

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

irq interrupt request
IRQ (Interrupt Request)
  • Message to computer
    • Stop and pay attention to something else
  • Interrupt
    • Circuit board wire
      • Device issues voltage to signal request
  • IRQ number
    • Uniquely identifies component to main bus
    • NICs use IRQ 9, 10, or 11

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide37

Table 6-1 IRQ assignments

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

irq interrupt request cont d
IRQ (Interrupt Request) (cont’d.)
  • Two devices using same interrupt
    • Resource conflicts, performance problems
      • Many symptoms
    • Must reassign IRQ
      • Through operating system
      • Through adapter’s EEPROM configuration utility
      • Through computer’s CMOS configuration utility

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

irq interrupt request cont d39
IRQ (Interrupt Request) (cont’d.)
  • CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor)
    • Microchip requiring very little energy to operate
    • Stores settings pertaining to computer’s devices
    • Battery powered
      • Settings saved after computer turned off
    • Information used by BIOS (basic input/output system)
  • BIOS
    • Simple instruction set
      • Enables computer to initially recognize hardware

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

memory range
Memory Range
  • Memory NIC, CPU use for exchanging, buffering data
  • Some are reserved for specific devices
  • NICS
    • High memory area (A0000–FFFFF range)
    • Manufacturers prefer certain ranges
  • Resource conflicts less likely (than IRQ settings)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

base i o port
Base I/O Port
  • Memory area
    • Channel for moving data between NIC and CPU
  • Cannot be used by other devices
  • NICs use two channel memory ranges
    • Base I/O port settings identify beginning of each range

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

firmware settings
Firmware Settings
  • Contain NIC’s transmission characteristics
  • Combination
    • EEPROM chip on NIC and data it holds
  • Change firmware
    • Change EEPROM chip
    • Requires bootable CD-ROM
      • Configuration, install utility shipped with NIC

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

firmware settings cont d
Firmware Settings (cont’d.)
  • Configuration utility
    • View IRQ, I/O port, base memory, node address
    • Change settings
    • Perform diagnostics
      • NIC’s physical components, connectivity
  • Loopback plug (loopback adapter)
    • Outgoing signals redirected into computer for testing
    • Use with loopback test

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

choosing the right nic
Choosing the Right NIC
  • Considerations
    • Compatibility with existing system
      • Network bus type, access method, connector types, transmission speed
    • Drivers available
      • Operating system, hardware
    • Subtle differences
      • Affecting network performance
      • Important for server

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide45

Table 6-2 NIC characteristics

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

repeaters and hubs
Repeaters and Hubs
  • Repeater
    • Simplest connectivity device regenerating signals
    • Operates at Physical layer
      • Has no means to interpret data
    • Limited scope
      • One input port, one output port
      • Receives and repeats single data stream
    • Suitable for bus topology networks
    • Extend network inexpensively
    • Rarely used on modern networks
      • Limitations; other devices decreasing costs

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

repeaters and hubs cont d
Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d.)
  • Hub
    • Repeater with more than one output port
      • Multiple data ports, uplink port
    • Repeats signal in broadcast fashion
    • Operates at Physical layer
    • Ethernet network hub
      • Star or star-based hybrid central connection point
    • Connect workstations, print servers, switches, file servers, other devices

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

repeaters and hubs cont d48
Repeaters and Hubs (cont’d)
  • Hub (cont’d.)
    • Devices share same bandwidth amount, collision domain
      • More nodes leads to transmission errors, slow performance
    • Placement in network varies
      • Simplest: stand-alone workgroup hub
      • Different hub to each small workgroup
      • Placement must adhering to maximum segment and length limitations

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide50

Figure 6-14 A stand-alone hub

  • Hub (cont’d.)
    • Hubs vary according to:
      • Supported media type, data transmission speeds
    • Passive hubs, Intelligent hubs (managed hubs), Stand-alone hubs (workgroup hubs)
    • Replaced by switches routers
      • Limited features
      • Merely repeat signals

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

bridges
Bridges
  • Connects two network segments
    • Analyze incoming frames and decide where to send
      • Based on frame’s MAC address
  • Operate at Data Link layer
  • Single input port and single output port
  • Interpret physical addressing information
  • Advantages over repeaters and hubs
    • Protocol independence
    • Add length beyond maximum segments limits
    • Improve network performance

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide52

Figure 6-15 A bridge’s use of a filtering database

  • Disadvantage compared to repeaters and hubs
    • Longer to transmit data
  • Filtering database (forwarding table)
    • Used in decision making
      • Filter or forward

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

bridges cont d
Bridges (cont’d.)
  • New bridge installation
    • Learn network
    • Discover destination packet addresses
    • Record in filtering database
      • Destination node’s MAC address
      • Associated port
    • All network nodes discovered over time
  • Today bridges nearly extinct
    • Improved router and switch speed, functionality
    • Lowered router and switch cost

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

switches
Switches
  • Subdivide network
    • Smaller logical pieces, segments
  • Operates at Data Link layer (traditional)
  • Operate at layers 3 and 4 (advanced)
  • Interpret MAC address information
  • Components
    • Internal processor, operating system, memory, several ports

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide55

Figure 6-16 Switches

  • Multiport switch advantages over bridge
    • Better bandwidth use, more cost-efficient
    • Each port acts like a bridge
      • Each device effectively receives own dedicated channel
    • Ethernet perspective
      • Dedicated channel represents collision domain

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

switches cont d
Switches (cont’d.)
  • Historically
    • Switches replaced hubs, eased congestion, provided better security, performance
  • Disadvantages
    • Can become overwhelmed despite buffers
      • Cannot prevent data loss
      • UDP collisions mount: network traffic halts
  • Switches replaced workgroup hubs
    • Decreased cost, easy installation, configuration,
    • Separate traffic according to port

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing a switch
Installing a Switch
  • Follow manufacturer’s guidelines
  • General steps (assume Cat 5 or better UTP)
    • Verify switch placement
    • Turn on switch
    • Verify lights, self power tests
    • Configure (if necessary)
    • Connect NIC to a switch port (repeat for all nodes)
    • After all nodes connected, turn on nodes
    • Connect switch to larger network (optional)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

installing a switch cont d

Figure 6-17 Connecting a

workstation to a switch

Figure 6-18 A switch on a small network

Installing a Switch (cont’d.)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

switching methods
Switching Methods
  • Difference in switches
    • Incoming frames interpretation
    • Frame forwarding decisions making
  • Four switching modes exist
    • Two basic methods discussed
      • Cut-Through Mode
      • Store-and-Forward Mode

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

cut through mode
Cut-Through Mode
  • Switch reads frame’s header
  • Forwarding decision made before receiving entire packet
    • Uses frame header: first 14 bytes contains destination MAC address
  • Cannot verify data integrity using frame check sequence
  • Can detect runts
    • Erroneously shortened packets
  • Runt detected: wait for integrity check

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

cut through mode cont d
Cut-Through Mode (cont’d.)
  • Cannot detect corrupt packets
    • May propagate flawed packets
  • Advantage
    • Speed
  • Disadvantage
    • Data buffering (switch flooded with traffic)
  • Best use
    • Small workgroups needing speed
    • Low number of devices

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

store and forward mode
Store-and-Forward Mode
  • Switch reads entire data frame into memory
    • Checks for accuracy before transmitting information
  • Advantage over cut-through mode
    • Transmit data more accurately
  • Disadvantage over cut-through mode
    • More time consuming
  • Best use
    • Larger LAN environments; mixed environments
    • Can transfer data between segments running different transmission speeds

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

vlans and trunking
VLANs and Trunking
  • VLANs (virtual local area networks)
    • Logically separate networks within networks
      • Groups ports into broadcast domain
  • Broadcast domain (subnet)
    • Port combination making a Layer 2 segment
      • Ports rely on layer 2 device to forward broadcast frames
  • Collision domain
    • Ports in same broadcast domain
      • Do not share single channel

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

vlans and trunking cont d65
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.)
  • Advantage of VLANs
    • Flexible
      • Ports from multiple switches or segments
      • Use any end node type
    • Reasons for using VLAN
      • Separating user groups
      • Isolating connections
      • Identifying priority device groups
      • Grouping legacy protocol devices

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

vlans and trunking cont d66
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.)
  • VLAN creation
    • Configuring switch software
      • Manually through configuration utility
      • Automatically using VLAN software tool
    • Critical step
      • Indicate to which VLAN each port belongs
    • Additional specifications
      • Security parameters, filtering instructions, port performance requirements, network addressing and management options
  • Maintain VLAN by switch software

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide67

Figure 6-20 Result of the show vlans command on a Cisco switch

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

vlans and trunking cont d68
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.)
  • Potential VLAN issues
    • Cutting off group from rest of network
      • Correct by using router
  • Trunking
    • Switch’s interface carries traffic of multiple VLANs
  • Trunk
    • Single physical connection between devices
      • Many logical VLANs transmit, receive data
  • VLAN data separation
    • Frame contains VLAN identifier in header

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

vlans and trunking cont d69
VLANs and Trunking (cont’d.)
  • Advantage of VLAN trunking
    • Economical interface usage
    • Switches make efficient use of processing capabilities
  • VLAN configuration
    • Can be complex
    • Requires careful planning
      • Ensure users and devices can exchange data
      • Ensure VLAN switch properly interacts with other devices

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

stp spanning tree protocol
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
  • IEEE standard 802.1D
  • Operates in Data Link layer
  • Prevents traffic loops
    • Calculating paths avoiding potential loops
    • Artificially blocking links completing loop
  • Three steps
    • Select root bridge based on Bridge ID
    • Examine possible paths between network bridge and root bridge
    • Disables links not part of shortest path

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

stp cont d73
STP (cont’d.)
  • History
    • Introduced in 1980s
      • Original STP too slow
    • RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol)
      • Newer version
      • IEEE’s 802.1w standard
  • Cisco and Extreme Networks
    • Proprietary versions
  • No enabling or configuration needed
    • Included in switch operating software
      • May alter default priorities

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

content and multilayer switches
Content and Multilayer Switches
  • Layer 3 switch (routing switch)
    • Interprets Layer 3 data
  • Layer 4 switch
    • Interprets Layer 4 data
  • Content switch (application switch)
    • Interprets Layer 4 through Layer 7 data
  • Advantages
    • Advanced filtering, statistics keeping, security functions

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

content and multilayer switches cont d
Content and Multilayer Switches (cont’d.)
  • Disadvantages
    • No agreed upon standard
      • Layer 3 and Layer 4 switch features vary widely
  • Distinguishing between Layer 3 and Layer 4 switch
    • Manufacturer dependent
  • Higher-layer switches
    • Three times Layer 2 switches
    • Used in backbone

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

routers
Routers
  • Multiport connectivity device
    • Directs data between network nodes
    • Integrates LANs and WANs
      • Different transmission speeds, protocols
  • Operate at Network layer (Layer 3)
    • Directs data from one segment or network to another
    • Logical addressing
    • Protocol dependent
  • Slower than switches and bridges
    • Need to interpret Layers 3 and higher information

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

routers cont d
Routers (cont’d.)
  • Traditional stand-alone LAN routers
    • Being replaced by Layer 3 routing switches
  • New niche
    • Specialized applications
      • Linking large Internet nodes
      • Completing digitized telephone calls

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

router characteristics and functions
Router Characteristics and Functions
  • Intelligence
    • Tracks node location
    • Determine shortest, fastest path between two nodes
    • Connects dissimilar network types
  • Large LANs and WANs
    • Routers indispensible
  • Router components
    • Internal processor, operating system, memory, input and output jacks, management control interface

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

slide79

Figure 6-23 Routers

  • Modular router
    • Multiple slots
      • Holding different interface cards, other devices
  • Inexpensive routers
    • Home, small office use

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

router characteristics and functions cont d
Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.)
  • Router tasks
    • Connect dissimilar networks
    • Interpret Layer 3 addressing
    • Determine best data path
    • Reroute traffic
  • Optional functions
    • Filter broadcast transmissions
    • Enable custom segregation, security
    • Support simultaneous connectivity
    • Provide fault tolerance
    • Monitor network traffic, diagnose problems

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

router characteristics and functions cont d81
Router Characteristics and Functions (cont’d.)
  • Directing network data
    • Static routing
      • Administrator programs specific paths between nodes
    • Dynamic routing
      • Router automatically calculates best path between two nodes
      • Routing table
  • Installation
    • Simple: small office, home LANs
    • Challenging: sizeable networks

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

routing protocols
Routing Protocols
  • Best path
    • Most efficient route from one node to another
    • Dependent on:
      • Hops between nodes
      • Current network activity
      • Unavailable link
      • Network transmission speed
      • Topology
    • Determined by routing protocol

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

routing protocols cont d
Routing Protocols (cont’d.)
  • Routing protocol
    • Router communication
    • Collects current network status data
      • Contribute to best path selection
      • Routing table creation
  • Router convergence time
    • Time router takes to recognize best path
      • Change or network outage event
    • Distinguishing feature
      • Overhead; burden on network to support routing protocol

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

distance vector rip ripv2 bgp
Distance-Vector: RIP, RIPv2, BGP
  • Distance-vector routing protocols
    • Determine best route based on distance to destination
    • Factors
      • Hops, latency, network traffic conditions
  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
    • Only factors in number of hops between nodes
      • Limits 15 hops
    • Interior routing protocol
    • Slow and less secure

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

distance vector rip ripv2 bgp cont d
Distance-Vector: RIP, RIPv2, BGP (cont’d.)
  • RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2)
    • Generates less broadcast traffic, more secure
    • Cannot exceed 15 hops
    • Less commonly used
  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
    • Communicates using BGP-specific messages
    • Many factors determine best paths
    • Configurable to follow policies
    • Most complex (choice for Internet traffic)

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

link state ospf is is
Link-State: OSPF, IS-IS
  • Link-state routing protocol
    • Routers share information
      • Each router independently maps network, determines best path
  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
    • Interior or border router use
    • No hop limit
    • Complex algorithm for determining best paths
    • Each OSPF router
      • Maintains database containing other routers’ links

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

link state ospf is is cont d
Link-State: OSPF, IS-IS (cont’d.)
  • IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)
    • Codified by ISO
    • Interior routers only
    • Supports two Layer 3 protocols
      • IP
      • ISO-specific protocol
    • Less common than OSPF

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

hybrid eigrp
Hybrid: EIGRP
  • Hybrid
    • Link-state and distance-vector characteristics
    • EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
      • Most popular
      • Cisco network routers only
    • EIGRP benefits
      • Fast convergence time, low network overhead
      • Easier to configure and less CPU-intensive than OSPF
      • Supports multiple protocols
      • Accommodates very large, heterogeneous networks

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

gateways and other multifunction devices
Gateways and Other Multifunction Devices
  • Gateway
    • Combinations of networking hardware and software
      • Connecting two dissimilar networks
    • Connect two systems using different formatting, communications protocols, architecture
    • Repackages information
    • Reside on servers, microcomputers, connectivity devices, mainframes
  • Popular gateways
    • E-mail gateway, Internet gateway, LAN gateway, Voice/data gateway, Firewall

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition

summary
Summary
  • NIC interface cards
    • Types, installation, testing, IRQ use, Base I/O port use, firmware settings, selection
  • Repeater and hubs
  • Bridges
  • Switches
    • Installation, switching methods, VLANs and trunking, STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), Content and Multilayer Switches
  • Router characteristics and functions, protocols
  • Gateways and other multifunction devices

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition