Leviathan Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes (1588-1769) Son of a priest (who had to flee) was educated by a wealthy uncle. Thomas read and wrote at 4, learned Greek & Latin at 6, and went to Oxford at 15. Tutor of the Cavendish, had to live in exile more than once
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Hobbes builds an immanent justification for absolutism that does not require of God.The need for Leviathan (mortal God) is self-evident
More than a theory of power, Hobbes’ is a Theory of Obedience
Hobbes deduces the need for Leviathan and sovereignty from human nature.So, obedience towards the Sovereign is both rational and convenient for us.
In ability, in both
...and in hope
“there is no way for any man to secure himselfe, so reasonable, as Anticipation” by subjecting as many other men as possible in order to achieve his own conservation
“men have no pleasure, (but on the contrary a great deale of griefe) in keeping company, where there is no power able to over-awe them all”
(liberty to do) (bound to do it)
“And because the condition of Man... Is a condition of Warre of every one against every one; in which case every one is governed by his own Reason; and there is nothing he can make use of... In preserving his life against his enemyes; It followeth, that in such a condition, every man has the Right to every thing; even to one anothers body”
Equality“there is nothing to which every man had not Right by Nature” (92)Insecurity “as long as this natural Right of every man to every thing endureth, there can be no security to any man...”
“every man, ought to endeavour Peace, as farre as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may seek, and use, alll helps, and advantages of Warre.”
First (Fundamental) Law of Nature: