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NIGER BASIN AUTHORITY (NBA). International Conference on INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT December 7-9, 2004 (Tokyo Prince Hotel, Tokyo, Japan) “IWRM in Practice - Operationalising IWRM at Basin Level” Niger River Basin Case study

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niger basin authority nba
NIGER BASIN AUTHORITY (NBA)

International Conference on

INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

December 7-9, 2004

(Tokyo Prince Hotel, Tokyo, Japan)

“IWRM in Practice - Operationalising IWRM at Basin Level”

Niger River Basin Case study

By Ousmane S. DIALLO, Water Resources & Environment Specialist, GEF Project & Shared Vision Coordinator (NBA)

iwrm in practice operationalising iwrm in niger basin
IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

Niger River Basin: Rational

and Stakes for Integrated Water Resources Management

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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Overview
  • Niger River Basin: Background
  • IWRM at a glance
  • IWRM in Niger River Basin
  • Niger River Basin: GEF Project
  • Lessons learned
  • Conclusions
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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Niger River Basin: Location & Background
  • Main features:
  • a crucial asset shared by nine countries among the poorest in the World (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Chad);
  • an important source of livelihoods for the region;
  • the 3rd longest Africa’s river & the 14th in the World (4,200 km);
  • the 9th in the world largest river Basin (2,2 millions km²).
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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Niger River Basin: Layout of the Basin
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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Niger River Basin: Background
  • Socio-economics:
  • The population of the basin is estimated at 107 millions of people (2000) (42% of the West African population).
  • Population will be 207 millions people in 2020, (the double) while the potential of NR feeding this population will decrease.
  • The River is important for water supply, agriculture, hydropower generation, fisheries, livestock development, etc.
  • The total GDP of the countries was 70 Billion US$ in 2000 with an average growth rate of less than 3%. The average GDP per inhabitant in the countries is US$ 350 (less than US$ 300 for sahelian countries).
operationalising iwrm in niger basin
Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • IWRM at a glance

WHY?

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

Countries are facing serious water resources challenges that call for a new water management framework.

IWRM relates to the macro-economy: Poor water resources management has negative impacts on health, environment and the economy, jeopardizing poverty reduction efforts.

IWRM is a process which can assist developing countries in achieving of MDGs.

IWRM process is the backbone of commitments to international agreements: Transboundary visions and co-operation.

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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • IWRM at a glance

WHAT IS?

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

Implementing IWRM process is a question of getting the “three pillars” right.

Integrated vision

Environmental

sustainability

Economic

efficiency

Social

equity

Integrated tools for planning and decision making

1-Enabling environment

2-Institutional framework

3-Management instruments

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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • IWRM at a glance

HOW?

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

Establish

Status,

Goals &

Agendas

Build

Political

Commitment

to Reform

Process

Monitor &

Evaluate

Progress

Analyse

Gaps

Implement

Frameworks

Build

Commitment

to Actions

Prepare

Strategy &

Action Plan

The Integrated Water Resources Management Cycle

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IWRM in Niger Basin - The strategic framework

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

I W R M

(Political will, Strategy, Resources mobilization)

AFRICA WATER VISION

WEST AFRICA WATER VISION

(2nd WWF)

AFRICAN UNION

NEPAD TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES

(Shared basins, Water security, Regional integration)

GEF

Project

Shared

Vision

European

& Other

Initiatives

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IWRM in Niger Basin - Shared vision: Critical elements

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

“Water resources are variable and finite"

«Silting of Midle

Niger Basin »

“Political borders crossing natural borders”

“Population growth”

“Pollution”

“Economic growth”

“Tensions between water users”

“Degradation of natural resources”

“Floods and Droughts”

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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Shared vision = Niger Basin version of IWRM

Niger River Basin Development challenge is

INTEGRATED LAND AND WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

FOR POVERTY REDUCTION AND

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASIN

HOW?

DEVELOPING A SHARED VISION

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IWRM in Niger Basin - Shared vision

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

Towards an effective Cooperation for sustainable development

Environment

DegradationSustainability

Balance of compromises

Politics

DisputeCooperation

Economics

FragmentationIntegration

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IWRM in Niger Basin - Shared vision

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

Framework for planning & action to address common challenges: poverty reduction, potable water & sanitation, health, food security, peace, economic development, etc.

The Shared vision = a set of long-term objectives & commitment to a program of actions;

Opportunity for good governance of shared water resources, for a cooperative & sustainable development of the Basin;

Effective tool for conflicts prevention and resolution among users, uses, development & environmental goals;

Commitment of the riparians to enhance a regional dialogue and to stop fruitless unilteral approach.

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IWRM in Niger Basin: European Union Water Initiative

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • The EUWI for Africa has two main components:
    • River basin management;
    • Provision of water supply and sanitation.
  • The Mission Statement:
    • Facilitate the implementation of effective IWRM programs through technical support, coordinated financing, dialogue and partnerships;
    • Work with riparian governments and other stakeholders to establish and/or strengthen river basin management, institutions and programs.
  • The suggested focus for Niger River Basin:
    • Fund the second phase of the Shared vision: Development of a Sustainable Development Action Plan (SDAP);
    • Strengthen organizational frameworks (capacity building, coordination of activities, etc.);
    • Explore new financing mechanisms;
    • Support involvement of civil society on interests based approach.
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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Niger Basin GEF Project - IW OP9

“Reversing land and water degradation trends in the Niger River Basin”

Project global objectives:

To reduce and prevent transboundary water related environmental degradation, through cooperative integrated management of the basin, while ensuring greater public involvement in the decision-making process.

Project development objective:

To provide the riparians countries, an opportunity to define a transboundary framework for sustainable development of the basin land and water resources, through strenghened capacity and better understanding of the critical issues.

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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

C4- Regional Forum

Project

Implemen-tation

C5- Demonstration

pilots & SGP

C6- TDA & SAP

preparation

C1- Institution building

C2- Capacity building

C3- Data management

Strategic Action Programme (SAP) formulation

Agreement

between the

9 NBA Countries,

WB & UNDP

Continue in Phase 3

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Niger Basin GEF Project

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

Land & Water are basic to Production, and Production is clearly a factor of Poverty reduction.

To address Poverty reduction, the Project will focus on:

  • Meeting human basic needs;
  • Environmental degradation;
  • Water degradation, health and loss of productivity;
  • Soil degradation and loss of productive land;
  • Risk management, floods and droughts;
  • Community-based driven interventions (Pilots & SGP);
  • Local community capacity building/strengthening.

The linkages between the GEF Project and country’s PRSP contribute to promote growth and reduce poverty, as well as external financing needs.

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Niger Basin GEF Project:

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

What is TDA/SAP?

The TDA

Transboundary: Projects are undertaken only when there are water management issues which cross the boundary between two or more countries.

Diagnostic Analysis: Problems are analysed through a scientific diagnosis of causes and effects.

The SAP

Strategic: Solutions usually involve long-term administrative or legal strategies in each country.

Action Programme: The project is not complete until a plan for practical implementation of the solution has been agreed.

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Niger Basin GEF Project: TDA/SAP

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

Two different types of TDA/SAP project with different aims:

A. REMEDIAL

To help countries to change human activities which threaten,

or have already damaged, a water body or its drainage basin.

B. PREVENTATIVE

To achieve environmental benefits by integrating the management and sustainable development of land and water resources.

This is OP 8

of the GEF

This is OP 9

of the GEF

To strengthen the many

other national and

international

Programs which have

responsibility for action.

All GEF projects aim to work as a catalyst to achieve more global environmental benefits.

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Niger Basin GEF Project

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

KEY PRINCIPLES OF THE TDA / SAP APPROACH

International experience has shown that there will not be much progress unless the following principles are followed from start to the end:

CONSULTATION / FULL STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION

All stakeholders must be genuinely consulted and their views have to be taken into account, before any decision is taken.

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT / “LEARNING BY DOING”

Monitoring, adjusting and revising at each step of the work.

COMMITMENT

People responsible must make commitments to take action, at each step of the project.

iwrm in practice operationalizing iwrm in niger basin

Heads of State

(Summit)

  • Niger Basin GEF Project: The main players & Synergies
IWRM in Practice: Operationalizing IWRM in Niger Basin

GEF Project

AfDB Program

NBA Council of Ministers

NBA Organization

Niger Basin Authority Executive Secretariat

(NBA/ES)

Regional Steering Committee for GEF and AfDB (RSC)

Technical Department

Regional

Project Management Coordination Unit

(PMCU)

Sub Scientific and Technical Committee (STC)

(9) National Project Teams

National Coordination Units

(NCU-AfDB)

(9) National Steering Committees (NSC)

National

Local Coordination Committees (LCC)

Local Technical

Committees

Beneficiaries

Local

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Niger Basin GEF Project: The four Steps in GEF IW TDA/SAP Process

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

Step I: Project development

Step II: TDA execution

- Identify & prioritise transboundary issues

- Technical issues analysis (CCA)

- Political / Governance analysis

- Prepare and adopt TDA

- Stakeholder consultation

- Conduct stakeholder analysis

- Project design and approval

- Formation of Team and Management

Step IV: SAP implementation

Step III: SAP preparation

  • - Monitor and Evaluate progress
  • - Build capacity
  • - Develop synergies with other initiatives
  • Link SAP with SDAP of Shared vision
  • - Draw lessons

- Long-term EcoQOs

- Feasability study of options

- Operational objectives & targets

- Institutional framework

- Interventions development

- Design of monitoring/evaluation system

- Approval and funding

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IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Niger Basin GEF Project

Putting the IWRM into practice at shared basin level: the role of the TDA/SAP Process

PROJECT

DEVELOP-

MENT

ENABLING

ENVIRONMENT

Institutional

Analysis

INSTITUTIONAL

FRAMEWORK

TDA

Legal/Policy

Analysis

SAP

MANGEMENT

INSTRUMENTS

SAP

IMPLEM-TATION

Stakeholder

Analysis &

Consultations

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Lessons learned

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • Context is critically important: IWRM in NRB, is a complex process: (i) high number of decision makers at the highest political level, (ii) social & cultural background, and economic situations of each riparian country, (iii) geographical diversity.
  • For the poorest countries, the initial focus is on crucial & urgent issues. The NRB planning process of IWRM is putting emphasis strongly on how to attain the UN MDGs.
  • Linkages between basin level and riparian countries level: convergence and complementarities; transition towards a more integrated approach.
  • The problems are more of institutional nature, that is GOVERNANCE, rather than technical. There is a crucial need for a long-term vision.
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Lessons learned

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • The GEF project contributes to alleviate poverty
  • Interactive participation of various stakeholder groups (public & private sectors, civil society, regional, national & local levels) is a key for community ownership.
  • The potential of the various NR of the basin can be developed and managed, through national actions implemented in compliance with the regional framework.
  • Integrated development of the transboundary NR on the basis of win-win principles, increases sustainable exploitation and enhances productivity.
  • Integrated development of these transboundary NR will promote socio-economic development of the riparian countries and enhance cooperation for the protection of the environment.
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Lessons learned

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin
  • The GEF IW TDA/SAP Process: a tool to operationalise IWRM at shared basin level
  • TDA/SAP Process may be used to build commitment to reforms and to actions through: political will, awareness, multi-stakeholder dialogue and finance identification.
  • The TDA execution phase gives opportunity to establish status and goals and analyze gaps by identification and prioritization of transboundary issues, joint fact-finding to ensure regional ownership (process & products).
  • The TDA execution phase can be shorten: During the Project development phase (PDF-A phase), a preliminary TDA has been prepared and will be finalized during the TDA execution phase.
  • Synergies developed with AfDB Program, are key for complementarities, resources optimization and future uses.
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Conclusions

IWRM in Practice: Operationalising IWRM in Niger Basin

GEF PROJECT

Challenges for (i) Poverty reduction, (ii) Water sharing, and (iii) Sustainable development in the basin

I W R M

SHARED VISION

OTHER

INITIATIVES

The joint work needs new partnerships and good coordination.