Agriculture Development… Lecture 2 Domestication of Animals Development of Irrigation Development of Agri-cultures AGST 3000 Agriculture, Society, and the Natural World Domestication of Animals I. Herd animals (cattle, sheep, goats) domesticated by seed planters
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I. Herd animals (cattle, sheep, goats) domesticated by seed planters
II. Dooryard animals (dogs, pigs, geese, chickens, ducks) domesticated by vegetable planters.
III. Man may not have begun to keep animals for practical reasons – inborn tendency for keeping pets.
IV. Young animals tend to become attached to people due to imprinting – tendency to follow first living thing seen or heard.
V. A state of mutual indifference between man and wild animals may have been requirement of domestication.
VI. Totemism may also have encouraged domestication.
VII. Cattle are most important livestock accounting for:
A. 50% of the world’s meat
B. 95% of the world’s milk
C. 80% of the world’s hides
D. important draft animals (oxen)
E. originated in Central Asia, spread to Europe, China, and Africa around
VIII. Man had to develop methods to harness the full power of draft animals
A. i.e., horse pulled 4 times more than man, increased to 15 times with a harness
IX. Western Hemisphere development delayed due to lack of herd animals
A. i.e., failure to invent wheel, plow, arch, rotational devised water wheels,
I. Irrigation developed by civilizations in arid/semiarid regions practicing seed culture.
II. Irrigation was vital to the growth of civilization in both hemispheres.
A. Development of engineering skills spurred by technical aspects of diverting river water, draining marshes, building levies and dikes and canals.
B. Mathematics and astronomy developed as a basis for measuring land, time, and seasons.
C. Modern calendars developed in Egypt around 6,000 years ago (Egypt remains the longest lasting irrigation based society.)
III. Irrigation was successful over time where annual flooding leached excessive salts and replenished soils through siltation.
IV. Average life-span of irrigated societies was 40 to 60 generations (1,000 – 1,500 years)
*Living in one place
I. Because man does not have to accept the environment.
II. Man can adapt the environment to his purposes and needs.
1. What were the factors in the development of plant culture (domestication) where they occurred throughout the world?
2. What were the factors in the development of animal culture (domestication)?
3. What were the natural factors that made it possible to domesticate the types of animals involved?
4. What probably was the first example of a man made irrigation system and what were the factors that made it work?
5. As we look at ancient societies, what factors required the development of villages, protective barriers, government, etc.?
6. What do you think have been some of the most significant developments of modern (last 50 years) agriculture and why?
7. Do you feel that today’s agriculture is better today than in the past when you consider the impacts on our society and environment? Why?