Why Bake? Literacy, Math, Science, Health, History www.homebaking.org Sharon Davis, FCS Education
From a Critical Science Perspective Focus: “practical, recurring problems or concerns of the family” (Brown & Paolucci, 1979) “Recurring concerns are value-based problems that occur from generation to generation and are resolved through reflective judgment and action. (Montgomery, 1999) Building Strong Families and Communities: A Critical Science Rationale for FCS. Bette Montgomery and Sharon Davis, JOURNAL OF FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES January 2004. Vol 96, Issue 1, p52-56.
Multiple FCS Outcomes • Academic foundations • Career, Community and Family Connections Standards 1.2; 1.3 • Consumer and Family Resources Standards 2.1;2.2; 2.3; 2.4; 2.5 • Consumer Services, 3.1; 3.5 • Family Standard 6.2 • Family & Community Services • Food Production and Services-- 8.1; 8.2; 8.7 • Food Sciences, Dietetics and Nutrition-9.1, 9.3, 9.5-6 • Hospitality, Tourism, Recreation • Human Development Standards 12.2; 12.3 • Interpersonal Relationships-- 13.3; 13.5; 13.6 • Nutrition and Wellness Standards 14.1 –14.5 • Parenting 15.2; 15.3
FCS is School Wellness Partner • Need: Tripling of adolescent obesity Equal effort to tobacco/alcohol/drug ed? 2% or less meet Dietary Guidance • Faculty: “We can’t move ALL the needles!” (My school faculty, 2006) • Need: integrated food and nutrition lessons, K-12; teacher in-services • Community Service Partners needed
Model School Wellness Policies include: Nutrition Education and Promotion. _______________ School District aims to teach, encourage, and support healthy eating by students. Schools should provide nutrition education and engage in nutrition promotion that: • is offered at each grade level as part of a sequential, comprehensive, standards-based program designed to provides students with the knowledge and skills necessary to promote and protect their health; • is part of not only health education classes, but also classroom instruction in subjects such as math, science, language arts, social sciences, andelective subjects; • includes enjoyable, developmentally-appropriate, culturally-relevant, participatory activities, such as contests, promotions, taste testing, farm visits, and school gardens; • promotes fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, low-fat and fat-free dairy products, healthy food preparation methods, and health-enhancing nutrition practices; • emphasizes caloric balance between food intake and energy expenditure (physical activity/exercise); • links with school meal programs, other school foods, and nutrition-related community services; • teaches media literacy with an emphasis on food marketing; and • includes training for teachers and other staff. More at: www.schoolwellnesspolicies.org
Childhood Obesity and Overweight “It starts from home. Every child should learn to cook…it sends the right kind of ramifications through the family. By the time these guys get to 14-16 years they know how to look after themselves and eat well…” The Press Association Limited. Home News. June 22, 2005 How many parents can teach their children to cook? 25-30%? Less? FCS=Essential Culinary Experience
Top Chef Urges Children toSharpen Cookery Skills “Messages need to be made earlier in life. (Preventing obesity) starts from home. It’s great to see 10-year olds cooking. It sends the right kind of ramifications through the family, making sure they understand what they are eating and knowing how to do it at the same time.” “Every child should learn how to cook and we need to keep banging on about the basics and not get carried away with the frills.” The Press Association Ltd. June 22.2005 www.eatwell.gov.uk Top Chef Gordon Ramsay, British Food Standards Agency (FSA)
Predict half the population could be obese in 25 years—1 million children in a decade. January 22, 2008: Reuters.com “Cookery” classes will now be compulsory in secondary schools 800 cookery teachers to be trained over next three years All schools to offer by 2011 11-14 year olds receive one hour per week in schools. Schools Secretary Ed Balls: “We want children to be able to cook simple, healthy recipes.” Prue Leith, new head of program to improve school meals in England: “If we had done this 30 years ago, we might not have the crisis we have today.” Campaign leader: Chef James Olivier “It’s of the utmost importance that all kids learn to cook good food from scratch and shop well.” Great British Food Debate
In the U.S., Chefs and FCS lead • "Cooking With the CHEFS (Clemson University Healthy Eating and Food Specialists)" program provides its participants with quick and easy recipes that appeal to the entire family, even younger children. • This unique, hands-on program allows participants to work in the kitchen…If you want to learn how to prepare quick and healthy meals that will please the whole family, then "Cooking With the CHEFS" is the program for you! • Research being published, lab manual, 2008 • www.clemson.edu/cookingwithachef
Cooking with the C.H.E.F.S Research-based, primary goal: Promote healthy eating behaviors by teaching • Basic nutrition • Food safety • Food selection • Menu planning • Food-prep skills Contact: Dr. Marge Condrasky Phone: (864) 656-6554 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Early Evidence:Why Teach Youth to Cook and Bake? “Research consistently shows that integrating nutrition and food education into the larger curriculum and providing children with hands-on cooking experiences changes what they are willing to eat.” The Cookshop Program. Toni Liquori. Journal of Nutrition Education. Sept/Oct. 1998.
More studies needed, but… “Studies have shown that cooking skills lead to increased cooking frequency, improved knowledge, preferences, and self-efficacy toward and interest in cooking, and decreased food costs.” Cooking Classes Outperform Cooking Demonstrations for College Sophomores. Levy, Joshua, MS; Auld, Garry, PhD. RD. J Nutri Educ Behav. 2004:36:197-203.
Involve adolescents in food prep “Dietetics professionals should encourage parents to involve their adolescents in food-related tasks to help them develop the proficiencies they need as young adults to maintain a healthful diet.” Larson,N, Story, M, Eisenberg, M, Neumark-Sztainer, D., 2006, Food preparation and purchasing roles among adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetics Association. 106(2), 211-219.
Early Interventions “Interventions occurring later in life require greater expenditures of effort, and require involvement of greater proportions of the system than is the case in earlier portions of the life span.” Richard M. Lerner, Ph.D—Director Institute for Children, Youth & Families, Michigan State U. American Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, Winter, 1995
Why do people bake at home? • Evokes strong emotional feelings and satisfaction (not as evident for cooking) • A way to show love for family, friends • Learning to bake from parent/grandparent creates emotional ties; desire to pass on • Important outlet for creative impulses, a talent • Pride is a powerful motivator • Strongest reason is emotional and relationship-related Home Baking Association Annual Meeting Land O’ Lakes 2003 Baking Trends Report
I am a home maker; or rather a "Domestic Engineer" as the newly updated lexicon glorifies us mere mortals to be, with two lovely kids. I love baking and churning out delicious stuff from the kitchen. Am not a very experimental eater, but seem to have a knack for experimental cooking! Where: Gurgaon, New Deli, INDIA Blogger When viewed: 3/01/08
Maslow’s Hierarchy & Horton “Who’s…Are you safe…whole…warm…well?” Source: http://www.ruralhealth.utas.edu.au/comm-ead/leadership/Maslow-Diagram.htm
Convenience vs. Control 320,000 prepared foods+ Consumer concerns Such as… HFCS, sugars Refined, “enriched” Ingredient allergies Boost wholegrains Real fruits v. flavors, colors Good fats, bad fats “Locally made” or “green” Pets
Do-It-Yourself v. Prepared for You • At-home prepared foods help us achieve guidelines for calcium, dietary fiber, iron and reductions in saturated fat. (USDA-ERS Bulletin 750, March, 1999. Lin, Guthrie, Frazao) www.econ.ag.gov) • “57% and 53% of people baking at home do so to use better quality ingredients or to make “healthier” baked goods, respectively (Bertolli 1996 Survey; 1997 BH&G Consumer panel) • Did we mention the cost$$$$?
Why Bake?No Food Skills=Fewer Resources • Expand culinary skills, employability American Institute of Baking www.aibonline.org Kansas State University Grain Science www.oznet.ksu.edu/dp_grsi/bakery.htm • Working parents need food prep partners to make meals and celebrations at home happen Eat Together, Eat Better www.nutrition.wsu.edu • Richer communities from having local bakers www.homebaking.org www.kswheat.com
Baking is a Career American Institute of Baking – www.aibonline.org Certified Baker Bread Bakers Guild of America www.bbga.org Culinary Institute of America www.ciachef.edu Johnson & Wales www.jwu.edu Kansas State U., Grain Science B.S. to Ph.D. in Baking, Milling and Cereal Sciences www.oznet.ksu.edu/dp_grsi Retail Bakers of America— www.rbanet.com
Baking is Science • NEW food allergies, heart health, “foodceuticals” • Ingredient functions • Temperature effects on starch, yeast, liquids, dough, baking, staling • Techniques and Timing • Substitution Success • Problem solving • Nutrition and food sciences • Consumer science
Baking is Consumer Science • Sensory preferences • Adding value, quality • Cost vs. price point $$$ • Packaging • Food labels Advertising Nutrition Facts Ingredient list Health claims • Product Standards • Consumer Rights
Agriculture www.wheatfoods.org Milling www.namamilliers.org 5,000+ years of world bread history Personal, family bread traditions U.S.—hoe cakes,“thirds” bread, sourdoughs Lewis & Clark, Native cultures www.historycooks.com Baking Events Famine/bread wars Shrove Tuesday Pancake Race (right) Pillsbury Bake-Off Coupe de Monde, Paris www.bbga.org 2009 National Festival of Breads Cindy Falk, email@example.com 785-539-0255 Baking is History Hands On
Baking is…High Tech • Baking equipment— scales, mixers, ovens, analysis • Explore reliable cyber sources • Apply computer skills • Analysis—Grains, nutrition, flour, meal, dough, product testing • Marketing • Consumer surveys and education • Digital photography—lab results and food styling • Food features for newspaper, magazine • Food labeling & research/FDA, USDA, HHS
Baking is…Math • Determine temperatures for liquids, batters, doneness of products, storage • Weigh and measure ingredients, dough, batter • Calculate yield, net weight, Nutrition Facts label • Product cost and price point • Time use, efficiency • Consumer product acceptance surveys
The Tipping Point Prepare Youth Educators as culinary educators to teach students hands-on food skills as an essential piece of the school wellness policy. Teaching young people hands-on food skills will change what and how they eat.
Baking Lends a Humane Hand Student bakers benefit while baking for • Emergency Shelters—People and Pets Bakers Lend a Humane Hand, www.homebaking.org • High Yield Bake Sales, www.homebaking.org Great American Bake Sale/Share Our Strength—www.greatamericanbakesale.org Local fund raising --www.homebaking.org • Bake and Take Day—www.bakeandtakeday.org • Bake to teach others—peers, younger youth, local clubs, camps • Bake for Family Fun—www.homebaking.org “The best service learning requires students to be actively involved in touching the lives of someone else as directly as possible.” Principal, Tom Schmitz, 25-year teaching veteran
WANTED: Experiential Learning Foods Labs #1: Do it—Experience the activity. #2: What happened—Share publicly the results, reactions, observations. #3: What’s important—Process by discussing, looking at the experience, analyzing and reflecting. #4: So what—Generalize to connect the experience to real-world examples. #5: Now what—Apply what was learned to a similar or different situation; practice. (Critical Thinking used) Source: University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 1997.
Unplug Older youth help younger Gain functional literacy Learn about a wide variety of foods Apply culture, science, math Build in etiquette Strengthen cross-age relationships Take home skills for family Career skills Collaborate with school media and library staff to teach ”the how-to and why read to children.” www.homebaking.org Blueberries for Sal Johnny Appleseed Pancakes, Pancakes Pie in the Sky Pretzels by the Dozen Pumpkin Runner Walter the Baker +Everybody Bakes Bread +Stone Soup +Two Old Potatoes Great Resource: The Michigan Team Nutrition Booklist. FCS/MI Team Nutrition Bulletin E-2835. www.tn.fcs.msue.msu.edu Book and Bake
Baking Builds Career Skills • Learn work competencies, standards—http:/wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/whatwork/whatwork.pdf -- Project time management • Problem solving, creativity • Visualization, communication • Reading, comprehension, application • Team building • Cultural/social diversity • Technical skills, computers, equipment • Learn food handling, safety, storage • Marketing skills, customer preferences • Visit Retail Bakers of America SkillsUSA: www.rbanet.com
Book and Bake…PretzelsIngredients1 cup water2 T. sugar2 T. oil1 ½ tsp. salt3 cups flour (whole wheat, unbleached all purpose)1 pkg. active or fast acting yeastBaking soda, water, OR whole egg + waterKosher salt, sunflower kernels, sesame seeds, cinnamon sugarMix dough in bread machine “dough cycle”, OR, sealable bowl OR In a large zipper plastic bag.Refrigerate overnight OR shape after 20 minutes rest.Line pan(s) with parchment paper.On an oiled surface, make 4-8 long (36-inch) dough ropes.Make a large grin, pick up the ends and twist once. Lay ends over the bottom of the “grin.”Label pretzels with maker’s name on parchment paper.Cover dough for about 10-20 minutes.Whisk together: 1 large egg + 1 tablespoon cold waterOR 1 cup boiling water + 1 T. baking sodaBrush ONE of the mixtures over pretzels.Sprinkle with kosher salt, sesame seeds or chopped sunflower kernels, or cinnamon sugar mixture.Bake in preheated 400°F. oven,15-18 minutes.
Bread with a Twist • Human resources…How did Walter use his own human resources? Ann? Walter Jr.? • Identify the economic problem Walter had when milk was lost. • Describe the type of worker Walter was. • List the ways the pretzel was different from the sweet rolls Walter made. • What food group are pretzels in? What are their nutrition benefits? • Could you make pretzels “whole grain?” • Where has the pretzel been marketed widely? • How much does a pretzel cost to make? • What do pretzels usually cost at the mall, a game or the airport? • Can you think of a new way or outlet you would market pretzels in our town? • What slogan would you use? Who would be your spokesperson? • To whom could you bake and take pretzels to as a thanks?
Resources @www.homebaking.orgResearch basedClassroom and youth testedWritten by FCS professionalsTest kitchens/food prosFCS Standards integrated
Middle school to adults @www.homebaking.org • Members’ links …test kitchens, youth activities, seasonal specials, Baking Labs , video clips • Ingredient Glossary • Baking Science • Standardized Recipes • Bakers Dozen DVDover 130 topics, 13 segments • Kids Baking…Learn about pizza! How-tos • Educator Resources… National Award Lessons Baking Activities for After school/summer groups Power Points • Service Learning Bakers Lend a Humane Hand
Food Lab Resources • Bakers Dozen Ingredient lessons • Top Ten Tips for Baking w/ Kids • Fight BAC! (Food Safety) • Did You Wash ‘Em? • Kitchen Safety • Terms and Technique (glossary) • The Thrill of Skill—age appropriate kitchen tasks • References & Resource List • Member test kitchens
Baker’s Dozen Lessons DVD • www.homebaking.org • NEW! Baking for Success DVD/Lessons Cornbread Brownies Focaccia
Kansas Wheat Organizations Cindy Falk, 785.539.0255 firstname.lastname@example.org Partners w/ Home Baking Association and Olathe High Schools, Log on www.kswheat.com Go to Educators tab FCS Baking Labs Fields of Gold (Preschool-K) Exploring Kansas Crops (4-5th) Also! Consumers tab and more Baking Labs/Wheat Resources
Baking Labs Include • Education standards/outcomes • Terms and Techniques • Measurements and Substitutions • Critical Thinking Exercises • Ingredient Functions/Science • Power Points • Why Bake? • Wheat and Flour History-Field to Flour • Grain Foods & Nutrition • Ingredient Functions- Flour to Table • Stand alone labs and activity options • Community Service Learning • References & Resources
2008 Baking & Food Science Course Standards • Developed in Kansas with Connie Nieman, Olathe North High School’s test program of Kansas Wheat/HBA Baking labs/KSDE • www.kswheat.com –Baking Labs • Course: Baking/Pastry Level 2 • www.ksde.org • email@example.com
Student-Tested • Connie Nieman, FACS teacher, test-site; contributor; standards Olathe North High School Kansas City Metro area • Funding: Kansas Wheat Commission • Sharon Davis, FACS Education Researched, prepared labs
Lab Tests… • Comparing Flours… flour is NOT just flour! “They all look the same to me…” • English Muffin Bread lab • Leavening Logic… Chemical and Yeast experiments “Does it really matter which I use today?” • Salt Savvy…Pita Bread Lab “Why doesn’t our pita look like the other kitchens?”
Lab Tests… • Yeast Science Focaccia Bread “WHAT is focaccia…my Mother tried focaccia and Did not like it!!” • Milk Bread “Mrs. Nieman!! I think we are on the wrong line or something…What is scalding??” “ I didn’t think Math and Science would be important in this class. Why do we have to measure, take temperatures and figure percentages?”
Lab Tests… • Fat Functions Designer Scones “What is a scone? Why do we have to try all These weird foods?” • Cookie Science Thin, Puffy, Crisp “Finally…cookies!” “The school makes crispy, I like chewy…”
Baking Lab Outcomes @ Olathe • Sanitation and safety • Baking science • Ingredient functions • Use of a variety of flours and grains • How to scale ingredients for measurement • Importance of temperatures • Team work • Evaluation of quality • Baking vocabulary terms • Problem solving • Importance of accuracy • Careers available in baking • Websites available
Baking is Business When is $.50 worth of ingredients…worth $5.50?
Artisan shapes Effective ads/labels Adding value Food styling Egg wash, decorating Connect with baking pros and spokespersons @ www.kswheat.com Baking is…Art
Dough Sculpting • Use good basic dough, frozen dough or bread machine dough @ 80°F. • After punching, round dough, cover allow “bench time” (10 minutes) • Cut, don’t tear dough, use baker’s (bench) tool • Divide dough evenly—use a scale • Shape rapidly to prevent drying, over fermentation • Avoid excessive dusting flour; grease hands, counter