Introduction to the Atmosphere. Dr. R. B. Schultz. Weather and Climate. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. It is constantly changing, sometimes from hour to hour and other times from day to day.
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Dr. R. B. Schultz
The most important elements are:
(1) air temperature,
(3) type and amount of cloudiness,
(4) type and amount of precipitation,
(5) air pressure, and
(6) the speed and direction of the wind.
Catastrophic Events and Associated Deaths
Earth's four spheres include:
Each sphere is composed of many interrelated parts and is intertwined with all other spheres. The energy exchanges that continually occur between the atmosphere and Earth's surface, and between the atmosphere and space, produce the effects we call weather.
A system is a group of interacting or interdependent parts that form a complex whole.
The Earth System involves the intricate and continuous interaction between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.
The two primary sources of the energy that power this system are:
(1) solar energy that drives the external processes that occur at, or above, Earth's surface, and
(2) Earth's interior, heat remaining from when the planet formed and heat that is continuously generated by radioactive decay.
The variable components of air include:
Like carbon dioxide, water vapor absorbs heat given off by Earth as well as some solar energy. When water vapor changes from one state to another, it absorbs or releases heat.
Climate Temperature inversion
Biosphere Radiosondes Mesosphere
Montreal Protocol Homosphere
Carbon Cycle Tropopause
Environmental lapse rate Aurora borealis