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  1. CHAPTER 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  2. The Human Nervous System Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  3. The Human Nervous System • The Structure of the Nervous System • Central nervous system (CNS) • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) • Afferent pathways • Efferent pathways Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  4. The Human Nervous System • The Structure of the Nervous System • Somatic nervous system • Autonomic nervous system • Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) • Parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  5. The Structure of Individual Neurons Link Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  6. Myelinated Neurons

  7. An- The Process of Neural Transmission • Transmission within Cells (Action Potential) • The Neuron at rest (resting potential) • Depolarized (excited potential) when inside becomes less negative relative to resting potential. • Hyperpolarized (inhibited potential) when inside becomes more negative relative to resting potential. • Accumulation of these = Graded Potential

  8. The Process of Neural Transmission • Transmission within Cells (Action Potential) • The Neuron at rest • Reception of Input • Threshold for Transmission • Action Potentials vs. Graded Potentials Link Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  9. Location of Axon Hillock

  10. The Process of Neural Transmission Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  11. The Process of Neural Transmission • Transmission between Cells (Synaptic Transmission) • Anatomy of a Synapse Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  12. The Process of Neural Transmission • Transmission between Cells (Synaptic Transmission) • Synaptic Transmission Link Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  13. Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers • Monoamines • Dopamine • Norepinephrine • Serotonin Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  14. Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers • Neuromuscular and Inhibitory Transmitters • Acetylcholine • GABA Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  15. Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers • Pseudo Transmitters • Endorphins • Opiates • “Runner’s high” Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  16. The Brain: Structure and Function • Major Regions of the Human Brain • The Hindbrain Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  17. The Brain: Structure and Function • Major Regions of the Human Brain • The Midbrain Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  18. The Brain: Structure and Function • Major Regions of the Human Brain • The Forebrain Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  19. The Brain: Structure and Function • The Limbic System • Thalamus • Hypothalamus • Pituitary Gland • Hippocampus • Amygdala • Septum Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  20. The Cerebral Hemispheres • The Occipital Lobe Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  21. The Cerebral Hemispheres • The Parietal Lobe Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  22. The Cerebral Hemispheres • The Temporal Lobe Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

  23. The Cerebral Hemispheres • The Frontal Lobe Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.