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The Future of the Human Machine: Emotions. Timo Airaksinen Philosophy University of Helsinki. The source. This presentation is based on my book: ”Ihmiskoneen tulevaisuus” (The Future of the Human Machine), in Finnish, WSOY 2005). Anti-dualism.

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the future of the human machine emotions

The Future of the Human Machine: Emotions

Timo Airaksinen

Philosophy

University of Helsinki

the source
The source

This presentation is based on my book:

”Ihmiskoneen tulevaisuus” (The Future of the Human Machine), in Finnish, WSOY 2005).

anti dualism
Anti-dualism
  • I want to argue that humans are machines and that the post-human world can be understood accordingly.
  • This goes against religious dualism: mind and body, soul and matter. In other words: mind is soul and body is matter.
  • I don’t know if body is matter, but if a human being is a machine, he/she cannot have a soul.
two types of machines
Two types of machines
  • Therefore, the human future is that of machines. We are now discussing technological matters.
  • Natural machines and technological (man made) machines are possible.
  • Before technology develops, we cannot say what a human being is. We miss a crucial, defining metaphor, and later a simile (analogue) and identification.
history of ideas
History of ideas
  • La Mettrie said that “man is a machine” (17??).
  • This was truly scandalous.
  • What was his argument like?
  • What could the argument for this type of a claim be like?
cyborgs and androids
Cyborgs and androids
  • The argument is:

-the artificial machine works (Turing test)

-everything can be explained scientifically (how it works)

-analogous technological machines can be found or created.

  • This is to say that a technological human being is possible.
  • Let us call it “cyborg” or “android”.
why analogy
Why analogy?
  • The post-human androids must be somehow analogous to natural humans, if they are going to have emotions.
  • These machines cannot just produce the same results as the humans do.
four difficulties
Four difficulties
  • Four difficulties exist:

-Moral (we love our genetic heritage)

-Motion (difficult to replicate)

-Meaning (Searle’s “Chinese Room”)

-Emotions

  • Cognitions are easier.
definition of emotions
Definition of emotions
  • Let us discuss emotions:

-think of Moravec’s suggestion

-where does he put emotions?

-the minimal def. of emotions:

-bodily component

-feeling tone

-belief (cognitive component)

-social significance

problems
Problems
  • All these present special problems:

-an emotion needs its body (this can be made)

-body/brain needs (self) consciousness (these processes present a conceptual riddle)

-cognitions are essential (we have AI)

-emotions are shared (androids need a community)

new emotions
New emotions
  • In an android community emotions are typical of their community and its life.
  • These emotions are not necessary the same we (people in this room) typically experience (Rodney Brooks, 2002).
  • Moravec’s suggestion cannot work: one box is not enough!
max and min cases
Max and min cases
  • Notice that Max and Min case exists:

-Min: cyborgs are just tech-modified humans

-Max: androids are fully tech-created and artificial

  • I want to discuss the Max-case.
conclusion
Conclusion

-We will experience cyborgs and androids in the future.

-But they will be different from us, e.g. emotionally.

-Then the future world will not be fully human, although it is “human”.

-This is also to say that use of the term “post -human” is justified. The human world will be different in the future, but not wholly.