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Sleep and Dreaming The first 90 minutes after you fall asleep: chapter 5 Realms of sleep Stage 1. Feel self drifting on the edge of consciousness Stage 2. Minor noises won’t disturb you Stage 3. Breathing and pulse have slowed down Stage 4. Deep sleep

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sleep and dreaming

Sleep and Dreaming

The first 90 minutes after you fall asleep:

realms of sleep

chapter 5

Realms of sleep

Stage 1. Feel self drifting on the edge of consciousness

Stage 2. Minor noises won’t disturb you

Stage 3. Breathing and pulse have slowed down

Stage 4. Deep sleep

REM. Increased eye movement, loss of muscle tone, dreaming

sleep and dreaming3

Sleep and Dreaming

For the rest of the night… stages appear out of order

why sleep
Why sleep?

Physical reasons:

  • Body clean-up: remove waste from muscles, repair cells, strengthen immune system, restore energy [no wonder we feel so awful when we don’t sleep!]
  • After 4 days of no sleep – feeling awful. Soon, infections and death.
why sleep5
Why sleep?

Mental effects of missed sleep:

  • Increased cortisol (stress hormone) causes cell damage
  • Lowered attention, less flexible thinking, less creativity

Mental effects of sleep:

  • “Consolidates” learning/memory…
evidence for consolidating learning
Evidence for consolidating learning

3 groups taught a strategy for a high speed math task – then brought back 8 hours later for a test: Who found a hidden shortcut?

  • Evening lesson plus 8 hours sleep
  • Morning lesson plus 8 hours delay
  • Evening lesson plus 8 hours delay

Sleepers did almost 3 times as well!

Note: Deep (stage 3 and 4 and REM) most important. Don’t stay up all night to study! SLEEP!!!!!!!

why dream 4 theories
Why dream? 4 theories
  • Unconscious wishes: Freud’s theory.

Your ‘dreams can come true’ in your dreams. According to Freud, by studying our dreams we can figure out what we really want.

why dream 4 theories8
Why dream? 4 theories
  • Dealing with problems

Your dreams tell a story about the problems that are bothering you most.

  • Students dream about missing tests.
  • Teachers dream about losing their lecture notes.
why dream 4 theories9
Why dream? 4 theories

Cognitive (thinking) approach

  • Just like when you’re awake, except that there’s nothing to think about!
  • Evidence to support this: If people are cut off from all sensory input, their thoughts become dreamlike – disorganized, hallucinatory
why dream 4 theories10
Why dream? 4 theories

Activation-Synthesis Theory (Making Sense of Nonsense)

  • During the brain’s clean-up work, visual cells fire – we feel like we’re “seeing”
  • The rest of the brain tries to tell stories that make sense of the random cell firing images
why dream 4 theories11
Why dream? 4 theories

Which theory is right?

  • Freud’s theory mostly discounted, but could more than one theory be right?
    • e.g., In ‘making sense’ of random cell firing, we might tell stories we like to hear.
  • Could dreams in different stages serve different purposes? (Remember, dreams are longer and more vivid in REM, but we dream in other phases, too
why insomnia
Why insomnia?

About 10% of adults have frequent problems getting to sleep or staying asleep

  • Worry
  • Work or school demands
  • Physical problems
  • Irregular schedules
tips for getting to sleep
Tips for Getting to Sleep
  • Are you sure you’re really not sleeping? Many people take up to 30 minutes to fall asleep. Does that feel like forever?
  • Do you drink coffee? Coke? Mountain Dew? Tea? Hot chocolate? Red Bull?
  • Alcohol does not make you sleep better. Reduces REM sleep.
  • Relaxation techniques before bed? Breathing? music?
  • If you can’t sleep, don’t just lie there! You’ll get frustrated and it will be even harder to fall asleep! Get up and do something boring.
what do sacred dance meditation and smoking pot have in common

What do sacred dance, meditation, and smoking pot have in common?

Is there a natural human desire to try to alter one’s state of consciousness?

psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive drugs
  • Stimulants
  • Depressants
  • Opiates
  • Psychedelics

…All cause changes in conscious experience (perception, thinking, mood, memory) or behavior through biochemical processes

psychoactive drugs16
Psychoactive drugs
  • Stimulants – stimulate (speed up) CNS
  • Depressants – slow down CNS
  • Opiates – mimic natural pain relieving hormones, endorphins
  • Psychedelics – alter thought processes and perceptions
cocaine s effect on the brain

chapter 5

Cocaine’s effect on the brain

Blocks the brain’s reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, raising levels of these neurotransmitters.

Results in over-stimulation of certain brain circuits and a brief euphoric high

When drug wears off, depletion of dopamine may cause user to “crash.”

then why not dance or meditate or go search for ways to explore new experiences with your brain
Then… why not dance?or meditate?or go search for ways to explore new experiences with your brain?