Remediation Outcome Study. Elizabeth H. Zhong, PhD Kevin Kenward, PhD. Participating States Arizona Maryland Massachusetts Minnesota Nebraska North Carolina. Recidivism. Prior discipline history. 1996. 2005. Probation Issued during 2001. Discipline Record and Recidivism Rates.
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Elizabeth H. Zhong, PhD
Kevin Kenward, PhD
Arizona Maryland Massachusetts Minnesota Nebraska North Carolina
Prior discipline history
Probation Issued during 2001
Prior Probationary Action Between 1996-2001(N=60)
Probationary Action During 2001
Post Probationary Action Between
About 15% of the disciplined nurses were male, the number of disciplined male nurses was disproportionate in the nursing workforce.
% of Male Nurses
2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses
2001 Probation Statistics (Six States)
65% Completed Probation
35% Failed to Complete Probation
Non-recidivism:Completed the 2001 probationary term and were not reported to the board of nursing for additional offenses within a four-year period from 2001 to 2005.
Recidivism: Failed the 2001 probation by having additional offenses during or after the probation.
Disciplined nurses who recidivated were about three years younger than those who successfully completed the 2001 remediation.
Those who were under the age of 40 years old were more likely to recidivate
≤ 40 Yrs Old
> 40 Yrs Old
There is a negative correlation between age and recidivism, every unit increase in age decreases the odds of being a recidivist to 0.95. For a 10 year age increase, 40% decrease in the odds that the older individual recidivated
If a disciplined nurse changed employers during their 2001 probation period, she/he will be 2.55 times more likely to recidivate compared to those who remained with the same employers.
Significant relationship between the disciplined nurses’ prior legal history (arrest or conviction) and the remediation outcome
With Legal History
Without Legal History
The disciplined nurses who committed different types of violations between 1996 and 2001 were more likely to recidivate again during or after the 2001 probation
Those disciplined nurses who changed employers during probation were more likely to fail the 2001 remediation program
Change of Employer