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Fortified: Existing Buildings Broken out by perils Hurricane High-wind & Hail Wildfire Seismic Freezing weather Internal fire Internal water Flood Fortified: Existing Buildings Up to three levels of designation Each level should be a set of retrofit activities that:

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fortified existing buildings
Fortified: Existing Buildings
  • Broken out by perils
    • Hurricane
    • High-wind & Hail
    • Wildfire
    • Seismic
    • Freezing weather
    • Internal fire
    • Internal water
    • Flood
fortified existing buildings2
Fortified: Existing Buildings
  • Up to three levels of designation
  • Each level should be a set of retrofit activities that:
    • Together provide a meaningful reduction in risk and vulnerability.
    • For Natural Hazards, correlated with different levels of events.
    • Can be accomplished incrementally to move from one level to the next
fortified existing buildings hurricane level 1
Fortified: Existing Buildings Hurricane (Level 1)
  • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Category 1 storm
  • Basic Requirement – Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion
  • Technical approach 1 – Reroof the right way
    • Re-nail the roof sheathing
    • Improve anchorage of roof deck/outlookers at gable ends
    • Reduce chances of attic ventilation system failure
    • Provide backup water intrusion protection for interior
    • Apply high-wind rated roof cover
  • Technical approach 2 – When reroofing does not make sense (Cover < 5 years old; Tile or Metal in good condition)
    • Reduce chances of attic ventilation system failure
    • Improve anchorage of roof deck/outlookers at gable ends
    • Apply acceptable closed cell foam adhesive in attic to all roof sheathing joints and to joint between sheathing and framing
fortified existing buildings hurricane level 2
Fortified: Existing Buildings Hurricane – Level 2
  • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Category 2 storm
  • Basic requirements
    • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion
    • Protect all openings and improve water intrusion protection
    • Strengthen large gable end walls and attached structures
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 Hurricane requirements (approach 1 or 2) plus;
    • Provide protection for glazed openings (including permanent installation of anchors / tracks)
    • Protect entry doors from failures due to wind pressure or debris impact
    • Caulk and seal around openings, plan for water management
    • Protect garage doors by replacement or bracing
    • Strengthen gable ends over 4-feet tall (wall members and anchorage at top and bottom)
    • Improve anchorage and bracing of attached structures
fortified existing buildings hurricane level 3
Fortified: Existing Buildings Hurricane – Level 3
  • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Category 3 storm
  • Basic requirements
    • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion
    • Protect all openings
    • Strengthen large gable end walls
    • Improve structural connections throughout structure
  • Technical approach
    • All Level 1 (approach 1 or 2) and Level 2 Hurricane requirements plus;
    • Chimneys anchored to structure
    • Roof structure evaluated and strengthened to new model code requirements
    • Roof-to-wall connections strengthened to new model code requirements
    • Wall-to-foundation load path strengthened to new model code requirements
    • Windows replaced with pressure rated units
    • Garage door and tracks meet new model code pressure requirements
fortified existing buildings high wind hail level 1
Fortified: Existing Buildings High-Wind & Hail – Level 1
  • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Thunderstorm or EF-0 Winds
  • Basic requirement – Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion
  • Technical approach – Reroof the right way
    • Re-nail the roof sheathing
    • Improve anchorage of roof at gable ends
    • Provide backup water intrusion protection for interior
    • Apply high-wind and impact rated roof cover
fortified existing buildings high wind hail level 2
Fortified: Existing Buildings High-Wind & Hail - Level 2
  • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in EF-1 Winds
  • Basic requirements
    • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion
    • Improve key structural connections
    • Reduce risk of tree related damage
  • Technical approach
    • All Level 1 High-Wind & Hail requirements plus;
    • Improve anchorage of roof at gable ends
    • Brace gable ends
    • Chimneys anchored to structure
    • Anchor and brace porches, entry overhangs and attached structures
    • Prune trees to reduce risk of trees falling on house
fortified existing buildings high wind hail level 3
Fortified: Existing Buildings High-Wind & Hail – Level 3
  • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in EF-2 Winds
  • Basic Requirements
    • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion
    • Structural connections meet minimum requirements for engineering design using 110 mph design wind speed
    • Reduce risk of tree related damage
  • Technical approach
    • All Level 1 and Level 2 High-Wind & Hail requirements plus;
    • Roof structure evaluated and strengthened to 110 mph model code requirements
    • Wall-to-foundation load path strengthened to 110 mph model code requirements
    • Garage door and tracks meet 110 mph model code pressure requirements
fortified existing buildings wildfire level 1
Fortified: Existing BuildingsWildfire – Level 1
  • Goal: Minimize risk of structural fire from brush wildfire
  • Basic requirements
    • Fire resistant roof covering
    • Control of ember entry through vents, keep gutters free of debris
    • Reduce fire risk from vegetation close to house
    • Reduce risk from combustible materials near house
  • Technical approach
    • Class A fire-rated roof covering or assembly
    • Soffit and other vents covered with 1/8” to ¼” metal mesh screening
    • Overhanging tree branches cut back 10-ft from house
    • Move combustible material to an enclosed area 30-ft away from house
    • Prune trees to eliminate ladder fuels (fuel that allow fire to climb into upper portion of the tree)
fortified existing buildings wildfire level 2
Fortified: Existing BuildingsWildfire – Level 2
  • Goal: Minimize risk of structural fire from crown wildfire
  • Basic requirements
    • Fire resistant roof covering
    • Control of ember entry through vents, keep gutters free of debris
    • Protection of glazed openings
    • Reduce fire risk from vegetation and trees within 100-ft of house
    • Reduce risk from combustible materials and structures near house
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 requirements plus install system to keep debris out of gutters
    • All windows are double pane with tempered outer layer
    • Maintain or remove plants that generate dead material next to house
    • Maintain 100-ft of defensible space around house
    • If you have open eave construction, plug openings, install a non-combustible covering, box in eaves with non-combustible materials
fortified existing buildings wildfire level 3
Fortified: Existing BuildingsWildfire - Level 3
  • Goal: Minimize risk of structural fire from wind driven wildfire
  • Basic requirements
    • Fire resistant roof covering
    • Control of ember entry through vents, keep gutters free of debris
    • Protection of glazed openings
    • Reduce risk of fire catching wall materials or soffits
    • Reduce fire risk from vegetation and trees within 100-ft of house
    • Reduce risk from combustible materials and structures near house
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 and level 2 requirements
    • If house is sided with combustible material, re-side house with fire resistive siding
    • Decks made of fire resistive materials, no combustible fences within 10-ft of house, combustible yard structures located at least 30-ft from house
fortified existing buildings seismic level 1
Fortified: Existing BuildingsSeismic – Level 1
  • Goal: Reduce non-structural damage in the event of a moderate earthquake
  • Basic requirements
    • Anchor water heater to wall structure
    • Restrain furniture, heavy objects, valuables
    • Restrain breakable objects on shelves
    • Reduce chances of broken glass
  • Technical approach
    • Strap water heater to wall structure
    • Fasten bookcases and cabinets to nearby walls
    • Install latches on cabinet doors and drawers
    • Secure electronic equipment, artwork and breakable items
    • Apply safety film to glass in windows and doors
fortified existing buildings seismic level 2
Fortified: Existing BuildingsSeismic – Level 2
  • Goal: Reduce structural and non-structural damage in the event of a moderate earthquake
  • Basic requirements
    • Restrain water heater, furniture, heavy objects, valuables
    • Restrain breakable objects & reduce chances of broken glass
    • Reinforce cripple wall, including adding hold-down connectors in the corners of the house
    • Strengthen narrow walls on either side of garage opening
    • Anchor unreinforced chimneys
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 requirements
    • Strengthen and anchor cripple walls and narrow walls on either side of garage opening
    • Anchor chimney to wall structure
fortified existing buildings seismic level 3
Fortified: Existing BuildingsSeismic – Level 3
  • Goal: Reduce structural and non-structural damage in the event of a design basis earthquake
  • Basic requirements
    • Restrain water heater, furniture, heavy objects, valuables
    • Restrain breakable objects & reduce chances of broken glass
    • Reinforce cripple wall, including adding hold-down connectors in the corners of the house
    • Strengthen narrow walls around garage openings & anchor chimneys
    • Improve load path to foundations
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 and level 2 requirements
    • Add anchor bolts with steel plates to tie walls to foundation
    • Add hold-down anchors to tie first floor corner studs to foundations
    • Secure post-and-pier foundation
    • Strengthen walls
fortified existing buildings freezing weather level 1
Fortified: Existing BuildingsFreezing Weather – Level 1
  • Goal: Reduce chances of freezing weather damage when power is maintained
  • Basic requirements
    • Reduce chances of frozen pipes
    • Reduce chances of ice dams and water leaks in roof
  • Technical approach
    • Install frost proof faucets on all outdoor hose connections
    • Make sure hoses are disconnected and removed during cold weather
    • Seal air leaks in exterior walls near areas where water pipes exist
    • Seal around any concentrated heat sources in attic and improve insulation around potential heat sources
    • Install insulation around any exposed pipes in crawl spaces or basements
fortified existing buildings freezing weather level 2
Fortified: Existing BuildingsFreezing Weather – Level 2
  • Goal: Reduce chances of freezing weather damage when power is lost
  • Basic requirements
    • Reduce chances of frozen pipes
    • Reduce chances of ice dams and water leaks in roof
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 requirements
    • Make sure there are no water pipes in exterior walls
    • Insulate vents and walls in crawl spaces or basements
    • Install ice and water shield to roof deck along eaves that extends 24” inside exterior wall
fortified existing buildings internal fire level 1
Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Fire – Level 1
  • Goal: Reduce chances that a fire will be initiated in your home
  • Basic requirements
    • Reduce chances of fire initiated in walls
    • Reduce chances that fire will be initiated by lightening strike
    • Reduce chances that fire will be initiated by dryer
    • Early detection of fires / Ability to handle kitchen fire
  • Technical approach
    • Check outlets for loose connections (outlet and wires)
    • Install whole house surge protection, check/fix grounding
    • Isolate flexible gas lines from other metal systems and properly ground
    • Clean / replace dryer vent pipe
    • Install at least one wired smoke detector and system of detectors that all trigger when one triggers
    • Make sure charged BC Fire extinguisher is available in kitchen
fortified existing buildings internal fire level 2
Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Fire – Level 2
  • Goal: Reduce chances that fire will spread beyond a single room
  • Basic requirements
    • Provide means for controlling fire and hopefully putting it out
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 requirements
    • Install NFPA D13 compliant home sprinkler system
fortified existing buildings internal water level 1
Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Water – Level 1
  • Goal: Reduce chances of most common internal water leaks from fixtures and equipment
  • Basic requirements
    • Reduce chances of leaks/bursting water hoses
    • Reduce chances of water heater leaks
    • Reduce chances of water leaks from kitchen and bath fixtures
    • Check icemaker piping
    • Reduce chances of water leaks from A/C drain pan
  • Technical approach
    • Replace washing machine hoses with braided metal shielded hoses
    • Periodically drain water heater – check/replace anode
    • Check operation of all shutoff valves for fixtures
    • Check icemaker pipes for signs of deterioration – have replaced if needed
    • Clean A/C drain pan drain and possibly add second drain line
fortified existing buildings internal water level 2
Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Water – Level 2
  • Goal: Reduce chances of large water losses if something does break
  • Basic requirements
    • Reduce chances of leaks/bursting water hoses
    • Reduce chances of water heater leaks
    • Reduce chances of water leaks from kitchen and bath fixtures
    • Check icemaker piping
    • Provide automatic shutoff of water in the event of a leak or A/C drain pan clogged drain
  • Technical approach
    • All of level 1 requirements
    • Install leak monitoring system with automatic shutoff of water supply
    • Install float shutoff control for A/C
    • Install shutoff and notify system for water heaters in attic or above living space
fortified existing buildings flood level 1
Fortified: Existing BuildingsFlood – Level 1
  • Goal: Reduce flood related damage from relatively common low level flooding
  • Basic requirements
    • Reduce chances of flooding and damage in basements
    • Reduce chances of flood damage in habitable space
  • Technical approach
    • Install sump pump in basement with battery backup
    • Use water resistant materials for wall and floor finishes in basement or in lower level of habitable space
    • No wall-to-wall carpeting in flood prone areas
    • Make sure all utilities are located above areas prone to flooding
fortified existing buildings flood level 2
Fortified: Existing BuildingsFlood – Level 2
  • Goal: Reduce chances that the home will flood to 1% per year (less than 40% in fifty years)
  • Basic requirements
    • Elevate habitable space
    • Minimize chances of damage to floor and walls
    • Minimize disruption/damage to utilities
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 requirements as appropriate
    • Elevate such that lowest habitable space is at least 1-ft above base flood elevation (BFE) or advisory base flood elevation (ABFE)
    • Use water resistant wall materials, floor coverings, and insulation in any areas located below BFE or ABFE
    • Locate all utilities – electrical outlets, wiring, compressors, air handlers, ductwork, etc. above BFE or ABFE
fortified existing buildings flood level 3
Fortified: Existing BuildingsFlood – Level 3
  • Goal: Reduce chances that the home will flood to 0.2% per year (less than 10% in fifty years)
  • Basic requirements
    • Elevate habitable space
    • Minimize chances of damage to floor and walls
    • Minimize disruption/damage to utilities
  • Technical approach
    • All level 1 requirements as appropriate
    • Elevate such that lowest habitable space is above 500-year flood elevation
    • Use water resistant wall materials, floor coverings, and insulation in any areas located below 500-year flood elevation
    • Locate all utilities – electrical outlets, wiring, compressors, air handlers, ductwork, etc. above 500-year flood elevation